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Table 1 Computed LD50 and LD90 values of yeast-encapsulated orange oil against various Ae. aegypti larval stages

From: Yeast-encapsulated essential oils: a new perspective as an environmentally friendly larvicide

 Insect stage
L1L2Early L3Early L3L3L3L3/L4
Testing institutionFiocruzFiocruzFiocruzUSUFiocruzUNMFiocruz
LD50 (95% CI)5.1 (4.6–5.6)8.4 (7.9–9.0)10.4 (10.1–10.8)5.6 (5.0–6.3)11.6 (10.9–12.3)17.3 (16.3–18.3)27.6 (26.4–28.8)
LD90 (95% CI)18.9 (16.4–21.7)17.8 (16.2–19.7)21.0 (20.0–21.9)15.3 (13.6–17.2)28.4 (26.2–30.9)40.3 (37.2–43.7)76.7 (69.7–84.3)
  1. Notes: Testing was performed using Ae. aegypti Rockefeller strain larvae at Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (IOC-Fiocruz), and on Ae. aegypti Liverpool strain at the Uniform Services University (USU) and the University of New Mexico (UNM). Variation in LD values may reflect difference between the two larval strains used. LD values are in mg/l of orange oil. This table is a compilation of all experiments performed at the three sites, with n representing the total number of insects tested at each larval stage. While there were some differences between the LD50 and LD90 values measured in different research institutes, these measurements fall in the same order of magnitude