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Table 1 List of hookworm excretory/secretory products with an importance in host-parasite interactions

From: Twenty-five-year research progress in hookworm excretory/secretory products

MoleculeGenBankSize (aa)SpeciesStageLocationFunctionReference
Ac-ASP-1Q16937424A. caninumL3UnknownLarval migration[15]
Ac-ASP-2AAC35986218A. caninumL3UnknownLarval migration[16]
Ace-ASP-1AAN11402425A. ceylanicumL3UnknownLarval migration[19]
Ace-ASP-2AAP41953217A. ceylanicumL3UnknownLarval migration[19]
Na-ASP-1AAD13340424N. americanusL3UnknownLarval migration[15]
Na-ASP-2AY288089210N. americanusL3UnknownLarval migration and immunomodulation[20, 22, 23]
Ac-ASP-3AAO63575200A. caninumAdultPharyngeal and esophageal glandsUnknown[30]
Ac-ASP-4AAO63576508A. caninumAdultCuticleUnknown[30]
Ac-ASP-5AAO63577424A. caninumAdultIntestinal microvilliUnknown[30]
Ac-ASP-6AAO63578451A. caninumAdultCephalic and excretory glandsUnknown[30]
Ac-APc2AAC4708091A. caninumAdultEsophagusFactor VIIa/tissue factor complex inhibitor anticoagulant[43, 50]
Ac-APc3AAP5730584A. caninumAdultEsophagusFactor VIIa/tissue factor complex inhibitor anticoagulant[50]
Ac-APc4AAP8292699A. caninumAdultEsophagusFactor VIIa/tissue factor complex inhibitor anticoagulant[50]
Ac-AP5U30795100A. caninumAdultCephalic glandsFactor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant[43, 45]
Ac-AP6AAC4708198A. caninumAdultUnknownFactor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant[43]
Ac-AP12ADR77824100A. caninumAdultEsophagusFactor Xa inhibitor anticoagulant[51]
Ac-NAP10ABP8812890A. caninumAdultUnknownVIIa/tissue factor complex and Xia factor inhibitor anticoagulant[52]
Adu-NAP4ACD80355104A. duodenaleAdultUnknownXa and Xia factors inhibitor anticoagulant[53]
Ace-NAP1AAK81733102A. ceylanicumAdultUnknownVIIa/tissue factor complex and Xa factor inhibitor anticoagulant[48]
Ac-HPIAF399709181A. caninumAdultCephalic glandsPlatelet inhibitor[47]
Ace-HPIMK087839200A. ceylanicumAdultEsophagus; cephalic glandsPlatelet inhibitor[61]
Ac-APR-1AAB06575442A. caninumAdult and L3Intestinal microvilli; esophagus; excretory/amphidial glandsHb, serum, and connective tissue proteins digestion[63, 64]
Na-APR-1nanaN. americanusAdult and L3Intestinal microvilli; esophagus; excretory/amphidial glandsHb, serum, and connective tissue proteins digestion[63, 66]
Us-APR-1ACI02330447U. stenocephalaAdultUnknownHb digestion[67]
Na-APR-2Q9N9H4425N. americanusAdultGut lumen; amphidial and excretory glandsHb and serum proteins digestion[68]
Ac-CP-1U18911343A. caninumAdultEsophageal, cephalic and excretory glandsIntestinal mucosal plug digestion[70]
Ac-MTP-1AAK62032547A. caninumL3Esophageal glandsLarval migration[72, 73]
Ace-MTP-2ABG49116233A. ceylanicumAdultEsophageal glandsIntestinal tissue degradation and immunomodulation[74]
Ace-KI-1AAD5133484A. ceylanicumAdultSubcuticleImmunomodulation and host proteases inhibition[78, 79]
Ac-KPI-1AAN10061759A. caninumAdultUnknownUnknown[81]
Adu-TIL-1GU951574161A. duodenaleAdultCuticle; esophagus; intestineNeutrophil elastase and trypsin digestion[82]
Ac-API-1AAU29500228A. caninumAdultPseudocoelomic fluidUnknown[87]
Ac-TMP-1AF372652140A. caninumAdultUnknownAc-MTP-1 inhibitor and immunomodulator[83]
Ac-TMP-2ACB13195244A. caninumAdultCephalic and esophageal glandsMMP inhibitors[84]
Na-GST-1FJ711440206N. americanusAdultEsophagus; muscles; hypodermis; gutHeme and hematin detoxification[90]
Na-GST-2FJ711441206N. americanusAdultBuccal capsule; weakly in cuticle and gutHeme and hematin detoxification[90]
Na-GST-3FJ711442206N. americanusAdultBuccal capsule; weakly in cuticle and gutHeme and hematin detoxification[90]
Ac-GST-1AY605283207A. caninumAdultHypodermis; muscle; weakly in intestineHeme and hematin detoxification[93]
Ace-GSTMN103336155A. ceylanicumAdultCuticle; muscle; intestineHeme and hematin detoxification[94]
SODnanaN. americanusAdultUnknownAntioxidant[104]
Ace-PRX-1JX124321196A. ceylanicumAdultUnknownAntioxidant and immunomodulatora[89]
Ac-NIFAAA27789274A. caninumAdultUnknownImmunomodulation[11]
Ace-MIFABO31935119A. ceylanicumAdult and L3UnknownImmunomodulation[120]
CalreticulinAJ006790403N. americanusAdultUnknownComplement binder and immunomodulator[122, 123]
Ace-ES-1AAL02424109A. ceylanicumAdultUnknownUnknown[124]
Ace-ES-2AAS13463102A. ceylanicumAdultUnknownUnknown[125]
Na-CTL-2AF388311178N. americanusAdultUnknownImmunomodulationa[131]
Ace-CTL-1AF172652184A. ceylanicumMaleTestis in male; embryo in femaleHookworm reproduction[128]
Na-AChEnanaN. americanusAdultAmphidial and esophageal glandsUnknown[133, 134]
Ac-FAR-1AAM93667181A. caninumAdultUnknownFatty acid and retinol uptake[143]
Ac-FAR-2AAM97930181A. caninumAdultUnknownFatty acid and retinol uptake[143]
Ace-FAR-1EU449764181A. ceylanicumAdultHypodermis; uterus; ovaries; testisFatty acid uptake for cuticle, egg and embryo development[144]
Na-FAR-14UET175N. americanusAdult Intestine; male bursaNutrient uptake and male reproduction[146]
Ace-NPAnanaA. ceylanicumAll stagesPseudocoelom; cuticle; hypodermis; testisFatty acids uptake for cuticle integrity and male reproduction[147]
  1. aThe immunomodulatory function of these molecules has been identified in mammals or other parasites and yet to be confirmed in hookworm
  2. Note: This list includes only molecules whose cDNA or protein has been isolated, and excludes molecules exclusively identified as ESTs
  3. Abbreviation: na, not available