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Table 3 Current available data on the detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in fresh fruit and vegetables, under non-experimental conditions

From: Detection of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in fresh vegetables and berry fruits

ReferencesProductOriginSample sizeOocyst recovery methodDetection methodPCR targetT. gondii prevalence (%)No. of oocystsSequence confirmationGenotyping analysis
Al-Megrin (2010) [19]Spinach, radish, leek, parsley, basil, green onion, dill, lettuce, cabbage, watercress, coriander, mintSaudi Arabian = 470
(250 g)
Washing, centrifugationMicroscopyna6.6ndNoNo
Lass et al. (2012) [20]Lettuce, strawberries, carrots, radishesPolandn = 216
One lettuce; 1000 g strawberries; 500 g carrots; 20 radishes
Washing, centrifugation, flocculation (CaCO3)Real-time qPCRB1 gene9.71–20/sampleNoYes (type I and II)
Haq et al. (2014) [21]Cabbage, carrot, chili, coriander, cucumber, lettuce, mint, radish, tomatoPakistann = 500
(200–250 g)
Washing, centrifugation, sedimentation or flotationMicroscopyna1.9ndNoNo
Lalonde & Gajadhar (2016) [22]Pre-packaged or bulk spinach, lettuce, chard, collards, dandelion greens, rapini, mixed saladsCanadan = 470
(250 g)
Washing, centrifugation, flotation (Sheather’s sucrose solution)Real-time PCR18S rDNA0.26ndYesNo
Marchioro et al. (2016) [23]Organic and nonorganic: crisp lettuce, regular lettuce, chicory, rocket, parsleyBraziln = 1171
(35 g)
Washing, filtration (0.3 mm cellulose ester membrane), centrifugationConventional PCRB1 gene/ 529 bp REP2.9/0.8ndNoNo
Caradonna et al. (2016) [24]Ready-to-eat packaged saladsItalyn = 238
(50 g)
Washing, centrifugationMicroscopy, qPCR, sequencingB1 gene0.862–554/gYesYes (type I)
Ferreira et al. (2018) [25]Crisp lettuce, arugula, chicory, chives, purple lettuce, spinach, chardBraziln = 470
(250 g)
Washing, filtration (two layers of gauze), centrifugationConventional PCR529 bp REP12.9ndNoNo
Slany et al. (2019) [26]Carrot, cucumber, lettuceCzech Republicn = 648
(100 g)
Washing, centrifugationTriplex qPCRB1 gene and 529 bp REP9.61–900/gNoType II
Present studyRTE/packaged and bulk (organic and nonorganic: lettuce, watercress, coriander, parsley, carrots, arugula, strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, mixed salads)Portugal, Spainn = 35
(64–3600 g)
IDEXX Filta-Max® filtration EPA method1623.1Microscopy, conventional PCR, qPCR, restriction enzyme, sequencing529 bp REP40.01–180/gYesNo
  1. Abbreviations: na, not applicable; nd, not determined; REP, repetitive region