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Table 4 Sexual dimorphism within and between species

From: Chagas vectors Panstrongylus chinai (Del Ponte, 1929) and Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva, 1911): chromatic forms or true species?

Sexual dimorphismSpeciesHeads
P-value (F vs M)
Wings
P-value (F vs M)
Sexual size dimorphism (SSD)
 MeanP. chinains0.030*
P. howardinsns
 VarianceP. chinainsns
P. howardi0.040*ns
Comparisons of SSD between taxa (bootstraps)
 Mean nsns
 Variance nsns
Sexual shape dimorphism (SShD)
 MahalanobisP. chinai< 0.0001*0.001*
 P. howardi< 0.0001*ns
Comparison of SShD between taxa  
 dcP. chinai0.0360.017
 dhP. howardi0.0310.011
 dc-dh nsns
 Angle dc/dh nsns
  1. *P < 0.05
  2. Abbreviations: P, risk of error estimated according to non-parametric technique based on permutation tests (1000 runs); ns, not significant; Mahalanobis, shape differences between sexes according to the Mahalanobis distances; dc, the magnitude of shape change between sexes according to the Procrustes distance for P. chinai; dh the magnitude of shape change between sexes according to the Procrustes distance for P. howardi (“dh”); Angle dc/dh, change in the direction of shape differences between sexes; F, female; M, male