Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of surveillance sites used for insecticide resistance monitoring

From: Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) exhibit high intensity pyrethroid resistance throughout Southern and Central Mali (2016–2018): PBO or next generation LLINs may provide greater control

RegionDistrictHistory of insecticide use
KayesKayesIntense use of insecticides for agriculture. Crops include cotton and ground nuts, sorghum, maize, rice, millet, sweet potatoes, beans and various vegetables.
Kita
KoulikoroKoulikoroAnnual IRS with lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid) 2008–2011, bendiocarb (carbamate) 2011–2014 and pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate) 2014–2016.
FanaSingle round of IRS with pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate) in 2016.
KatiIrrigated agriculture including cotton, groundnuts and tobacco. Use of insecticides to control Simulium damnosum larvae (blackfly).
SegouNionoLarge areas of irrigated rice agriculture and pesticide use.
BlaIRS with pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate) in 2014.
BaroueliAnnual IRS with lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid) 2008–2011, bendiocarb (carbamate) 2011–2014 and pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate) 2014–2016.
SikassoBougouniIntense use of insecticides for growing of cotton.
SélinguéIrrigated agriculture and pesticide use. Crops include various vegetables and fruits.
Kadiolo
MoptiBandiangaraIRS with pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate) in 2017 and 2018.
Mopti
Bankass
DjennéIRS with pirimiphos-methyl (organophosphate) in 2017 and clothianidin (neonicotinoid) in 2018.
BamakoBamakoUrban areas where domestic personal protection is used (insecticide aerosols, coils).