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Table 2 Results for the comparison of demographic, socioeconomic and landscape factors between the case and control groups by Chi-square test

From: Socioeconomic, demographic and landscape factors associated with cutaneous leishmaniasis in Kurunegala District, Sri Lanka

FactorCase
n (%)
Control
n (%)
χ2P-value
Age (years)    
< 159 (8.91)1 (0.99)24.6900.001
15–258 (7.92)5 (4.95)
26–3523 (22.77)51 (50.49)
36–4522 (21.78)21 (20.79)
46–5518 (17.82)13 (12.87)
56–6510 (9.90)7 (6.93)
66–758 (7.92)1 (0.99)
76–853 (2.97)2(1.98)
Gender
 Male56 (55.45)82 (81.19)15.461< 0.001
 Female45 (44.55)19 (18.81)
Marital status
 Married84 (83.17)94 (93.07)4.7280.030
 Unmarried17 (16.83)7 (6.93)
Family size
 1–358 (57.43)49 (48.51)1.6680.434
 4–641 (40.59)49 (48.51)
 > 62 (1.98)3 (2.98)
Education
 Grade 1–46 (5.94)2 (1.98)4.2590.642
 Grade 523 (22.77)27 (26.73)
 O/L46 (45.54)53 (52.48)
 A/L20 (19.80)16 (15.84)
 Higher education2 (1.981 (0.99)
 None4 (3.96)2 (1.98)
Major occupation
 Armed forces3 (2.98)6 (5.94)24.4290.005
 Transport service worker (driver/conductor)6 (5.94)4 (3.96)
 Farmer33 (32.67)29 (28.71)
 Government server5 (4.95)9 (8.91)
 Labourer2 (1.98)3 (2.98)
 Mason6 (5.94)16 (15.84)
 Private sector employee3 (2.98)7 (6.93)
 Self employed8 (7.92)13 (12.87)
 Housewife29 (28.71)8 (7.92)
 Student6 (5.94)6 (5.94)
Monthly income Rs. (USD)
 < 10,000 (< 56.76)20 (19.80)3 (2.98)15.3720.002
 10,001–20,000 (56.76–113.52)33 (32.67)41 (40.59)
 20,001–30,000 (113.52–170.28)27 (26.73)26 (25.74)
 > 30,000 (> 170.28)21 (20.79)31 (30.69)
 House condition
 Poor11 (10.89)13 (12.87)2.7450.253
 Moderate52 (51.49)61 (60.40)
 Good38 (37.62)27 (26.73)
Decaying garbage
 Present57 (56.44)25 (24.75)20.559<0.001
 Absent44 (43.56)76 (75.25)
Termite hills
 Present45 (44.55)34 (33.66)9.272<0.05
 Absent56 (55.45)67 (66.34)
Manna bushes
 Present50 (49.50)43 (42.57)0.7410.389
 Absent51 (50.50)58 (57.43)
Water streams
  Present47 (46.53)60 (60.40)3.3580.067
 Absent54 (53.47)41 (39.60)
Unclear areas
 Present63 (62.38)40 (39.60)10.070< 0.05
 Absent38 (37.62)61 (60.40)
Areas with wet soil
 Present52 (51.49)30 (29.70)9.936< 0.05
 Absent49 (48.51)71 (70.30)
Gardening areas
 Present50 (49.50)26 (25.74)11.8060.001
 Absent51 (50.50)75 (74.26)
Animals owned or frequently visiting the home harden and household
 Dogs77 (76.24)51 (50.50)8.8910.180
 Cats36 (35.64)17 (16.83)
 Cattle8 (7.92)8 (7.92)
 Chicken2 (1.98)4 (3.96)
 Wild boar12 (11.88)4 (3.96)
 Monkeys2 (1.98)0 (0)
 Rodents13 (12.87)3 (2.98)
Heard of the disease? (before the infection)
 Yes25 (24.75)66 (65.35)33.617< 0.001
 No76 (75.25)35 (34.65)
If yes, source
 TV/radio3 (12.00)8 (12.12)36.816< 0.001
 Printed media1 (4.00)2 (3.03)
 Friend19 (76.00)39 (59.09)
 Health worker2 (8.00)17 (25.75)
Seen a patient? (before infection)
 Yes16 (15.84)43 (42.57)17.454< 0.001
 No85 (84.16)58 (57.43)
If yes, source?
 Village15 (93.75)37 (86.05)16.802< 0.001
 Outside village1 (6.25)4 (9.30)
 TV/printed media0 (0.00)2 (4.65)
Causative organism
 Correct2 (1.98)0 (0)2.0200.155
 Wrong0 (0)0 (0)
 Unaware99 (98.02)101 (100)
Mode of transmission
 Correct20 (19.80)1 (0.99)6.0000.199
 Wrong3 (2.98)8 (7.92)
 Unaware78 (77.22)92 (91.09)
Method of diagnosis
 Correct1 (0.99)0 (0)1.0050.316
 Unaware100 (99.01)101 (100)
Peak biting time
 Correct5 (4.95)0 (0)6.1840.045
 Wrong1 (0.99)0 (0)
 Unaware95 (94.06)101 (100)
Protective measures
 Correct5 (4.95)2 (1.98)2.4510.294
 Wrong11 (10.89)7 (6.93)
 Unaware85 (84.16)92 (91.09)
  1. Note: P < 0.05 indicates a statistically significant result