Skip to main content

Table 2 Seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies in South American camelids

From: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in South American camelids in Switzerland and assessment of serological tests for diagnosis

Country
Region
SAC species Test (commercial provider) Cut-off No. positives/No. examined % Positives Reference
Peru
Highlands, Central and Southern Peru
Alpaca IFAT
conjugate: anti-llama IgG FITC (VMRD)
1:50 39/92 42.4 [58]
  Llama   1:50 39/212 18.4  
Peru
Highlands, different regions
Alpaca IFAT
conjugate: anti-llama IgG–FITC (VMRD) + confirmation of positive results by Westernblot
1:50 14/78 17.9 [59]
  Llama    17/73 23.3  
Peru
Puno, South-Eastern Peru
Alpaca Immunoblot N. caninum   17/675 2.5 [30]
  Llama    1/81 1.2  
  Vicuna    0/114 0  
Peru
Yauli, Central Sierra
Alpaca IFAT
conjugate: anti-llama IgG FITC (VMRD)
1:100 5/175 2.9 [72]
Peru
Central and South Peruvian Andes
Alpaca IFAT
conjugate: anti-llama IgG FITC (VMRD)
1:100 425/2874 14.8 [57]
  Llama    153/1845 8.3  
Peru
Arequipa, South Peruvian Andes
Vicuna ELISA, Chekit Neospora – cELISA (IDEXX) + confirmation of positive results by Westernblot   2/207 1.0 [73]
  Alpaca    2/571 0.3  
  Llama    0/43 0  
Peru
Huancavelica
Llama IFAT
conjugate: anti-llama IgG FITC (VMRD)
1:100 12/98 12.2 [56]
Peru
Huancavelica
Alpaca IFAT 1:100 47/288 16.3 [55]
Argentina
Jujuy
Llama IFAT
conjugate: anti bovine IgG FITC (Sigma)
1:50 3/308 1.0 [37]
Australia
South
Alpaca ELISA, N. caninum Antibody Test Kit ELISA (IDEXX) + Protein G conjugate (Zymed Recombinant Protein G HRP Conjugate, Invitrogen)   0/182 0 [53]
Australia
New South Wales and Victoria
Alpaca ELISA, N. caninum Antibody Test Kit – cELISA (VMRD) %I ≥ 30%a 3/100 3.0 [24]
Germany
Hesse
Alpaca Immunoblot N. caninum   0/12 0 [30]
  Llama    0/20 0  
Czech Republic Alpaca ELISA, N. caninum Antibody Test Kit – cELISA (VMRD) %I ≥ 30%a 0/1 0 [42]
  Llama    1/8 12.5  
  Alpaca IFAT
conjugate: anti-llama IgG FITC (VMRD)
1:50 0/1 0  
  Llama    1/8 12.5  
  1. cELISA: competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, IFAT: indirect fluorescent antibody test; a %I (% inhibition) calculated according the formula: %I = 100 − (OD sample × 100/mean OD negative control), OD optical density, S/P (%) calculated according to the formula: S/P = (OD sample/OD positive control) × 100; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate