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Table 5 Fixed effects in generalized linear mixed models to determine potential risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii-seropositivity in Swiss South American camelids

From: Toxoplasma gondii and Neospora caninum infections in South American camelids in Switzerland and assessment of serological tests for diagnosis

Model (AIC, model fit) Variable Odds ratio (95% CI) z-value P-value
1 (155.9) Intercept 1.090 (0.390–3.070) 0.170 0.864644
Age (months) 1.020 (1.010–1.040) 3.602 0.000316***
2 (153.4) Intercept 0.607 (0.209–1.760) − 0.919 0.358139
Age 1.021 (1.009–1.030) 3.497 0.000471***
Sex: male (ref.)    
Sex: female 2.924 (1.111–7.690) 2.174 0.029711*
3 (152.4) Intercept 1.228 (0.460–3.278) 0.410 0.681820
Age 1.024 (1.011–1.036) 3.707 0.000210***
Cat, past 2 years (ref.)    
No cat, past 2 years 0.214 (0.055–0.828) − 2.233 0.025530*
4 (149.3) Intercept 0.692 (0.255–1.880) − 0.722 0.470200
Age 1.021 (1.009–1.033) 3.540 0.000400***
Sex: male (ref.)    
Sex: female 2.941 (1.164–7.426) 2.282 0.022500*
Cat, past 2 years (ref.)    
No cat, past 2 years 0.232 (0.066–0.809) − 2.293 0.021900*
  1. Notes: Data were analysed by bivariable generalized linear mixed modelling including “Age” (months) as effect modifier and “Farm” as random effects variable in modelling T. gondii-seropositivity. The Akaike information criterion (AIC) was used to characterize the relative model quality
  2. Abbreviation: ref., reference
  3. *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P < 0.001