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Table 1 Socio-demographic factors of the study population

From: Prevalence of cutaneous leishmaniasis infection and clinico-epidemiological patterns among military personnel in Mullaitivu and Kilinochchi districts of the Northern Province, early war-torn areas in Sri Lanka

Factor Response category No. of respondents Percentage of respondents P-value OR 95% CI
Positive for leishmaniasis Negative for leishmaniasis
Gender Male 71 67.6 (n = 48) 32.4 (n = 23) 0.080 1.00 Reference
Female 3 66.6 (n = 2) 33.4 (n = 1) 1.04 0.96–3.49
Age (years) < 25 12 41.7 (n = 5) 58.3 (n = 7) 0.037 1.00 Reference
26–35 36 83.3 (n = 30) 16.7 (n = 6) 4.83 3.49–6.20
36–45 20 60.0 (n = 12) 40.0 (n = 8) 1.75 1.27–3.16
> 46 5 60.3 (n = 3) 39.7 (n = 2) 2.33 1.61–4.35
Province Central 10 69.9 (n = 7) 30.1 (n = 3) 0.442 1.00 Reference
Eastern 5 79.4 (n = 4) 20.6 (n = 1) 1.71 1.26–4.29
North-Central 16 68.7 (n = 11) 31.3 (n = 5) 0.94 0.79–2.66
Northern 2 50.0 (n = 1) 50.0 (n = 1) 0.43 0.15–3.51
North-Western 9 77.9 (n = 7) 22.1 (n = 2) 1.50 1.15–3.57
Sabaragamuwa 5 60.3 (n = 3) 39.7 (n = 2) 0.64 0.42–0.89
Southern 6 100.0 (n = 6) 0 (n = 0) 2.14 1.49–4.68
Uva 10 69.9 (n = 7) 30.1 (n = 3) 1.00 0.87–2.91
Western 12 33.3 (n = 4) 66.7 (n = 8) 0.21 0.08–0.53
Education level Grade 6–11 30 70.0 (n = 21) 30.0 (n = 9) 0.360 1.00 Reference
GCE O/L 31 58.0 (n = 18) 42.0 (n = 13) 0.64 0.44–1.71
GCE A/L 12 83.3 (n = 10) 16.7 (n = 2) 2.14 1.49–3.85
Graduate 1 100.0 (n = 1) 0 (n = 0) 0.43 0.21–1.18
Rank Private 24 58.3 (n = 14) 41.7 (n = 10) 0.625 1.00 Reference
Lance Corporal/Corporal 37 75.6 (n = 28) 24.4 (n = 9) 2.22 1.54–3.33
Sergeant/staff Sergeant/Warrant Officers 9 66.4 (n = 6) 33.6 (n = 3) 1.43 1.12–3.03
2nd Lieutenant/Lieutenant/Captain 2 50.0 (n = 1) 50.0 (n = 1) 0.71 0.58–1.60
Major and above 2 50.0 (n = 1) 50.0 (n = 1) 0.71 0.58–1.60
Unit Infantry 35 77.2 (n = 27) 22.8 (n = 8) 0.235 1.00 Reference
Support 23 52.1 (n = 12) 47.9 (n = 11) 0.32 0.21–1.26
Service 14 71.4 (n = 10) 28.6 (n = 4) 0.74 0.49–1.54
Sri Lanka Army Women’s Corps 2 50.0 (n = 1) 50.0 (n = 1) 0.30 0.23–1.08
History of working/travel in to the jungles Yes 25 68.0 (n = 17) 32.0 (n = 8) 0.950 1.00 Reference
No 49 67.4 (n = 33) 32.6 (n = 16) 1.03 1.00–2.06
History of overseas travel Yes 4 75.0 (n = 3) 25.0 (n = 1) 0.540 1.00 Reference
No 70 67.1 (n = 47) 32.9 (n = 23) 0.91 0.75–2.59
Continent of travel Asia 2 50.0 (n = 1) 50.0 (n = 1) 0.710 1.00 Reference
Out of Asia 2 50.0 (n = 1) 50.0 (n = 1) 1.00 0.91–3.92
Not travelled 70 67.1 (n = 47) 32.9 (n = 23) 2.04 1.44–4.86
Use of insect repellant Yes 10 40.0 (n = 4) 60.0 (n = 6) 0.045 1.00 Reference
No 64 71.9 (n = 46) 28.1 (n = 18) 3.83 2.69–5.21
Use of mosquito nets Yes 65 69.2 (n = 45) 30.8 (n = 20) 0.411 1.00 Reference
No 9 55.7 (n = 5) 44.3 (n = 4) 1.80 0.99–3.22
Type of sleeves in the upper part of the uniform Short sleeves 62 72.6 (n = 45) 27.4 (n = 17) 0.036 1.00 Reference
Long sleeves 12 41.7 (n = 5) 58.3 (n = 7) 3.71 2.59–4.98
Length of trousers of uniform Short trouser 14 85.7 (n = 12) 14.3 (n = 2) 0.107 1.00 Reference
Long trousers 60 63.4 (n = 38) 36.6 (n = 22) 3.47 2.41–5.06
Footwear Boots 25 63.9 (n = 16) 36.1 (n = 9) 0.27 1.00 Reference
Slippers 27 85.2 (n = 23) 14.8 (n = 4) 3.23 2.24–4.57
Does not wear foot wear regularly 4 74.5 (n = 3) 25.5 (n = 1) 1.69 1.04–4.09
Shoes 28 64.3 (n = 18) 35.7 (n = 10) 1.01 0.97–2.14
  1. Notes: The P-values, odds ratios and the confidence levels shown in the table are calculated by using the binary logistic regression
  2. Abbreviation: OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval