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Table 1 Summary of donkeys with besnoitiosis presented clinically as skin or ocular masses

From: First record of besnoitiosis caused by Besnoitia bennetti in donkeys from the UK

IDAge and sexYearClinical historyLesionsd
1c17-year-old gelding2013Dermatitis and skin masses in various sites of bodySmall nodules on skin of left eye periorbital area
2c5-year-old gelding2016Lumps on the lipNodular mass on the penile sheath skin
3c5-year-old gelding2018Nodular masses in right hand side of abdomen and sheath skinNodular mass on the penile sheath skin
4c7-year-old gelding2018Recurrent sarcoidsNodular masses in skin overlying left mandible
5c11-year-old gelding2018Previously removed mass in skin overlying the left mandible. Recurrent sarcoids in various sites treated with chemotherapyMass on the lip
6b5-year-old female2018Corneal ulcer in the eyeNodules noticed on sclera (Fig. 1). Besnoitia cysts in conjunctiva
7c7-year-old gelding2019Previously removed mass (surgical excision with cutting laser 2016) in skin overlying left mandibleNodular sarcoid mass in skin overlying left mandible
8a,c20-year-old gelding2019Episodes of conjunctivitis and weight lossSmall mass at the base of right teat and lumps on sheath skin
  1. aBesnoitia bennetti infection was confirmed in a tissue sample by PCR and the tissue fluid of the same sample was reactive to B. besnoiti bradyzoites based on immunoblot results
  2. bBesnoitia cysts were associated with ocular lesions
  3. cNodular masses were removed by surgical excision with a cutting laser (except for donkey no. 1 where surgery was performed using scalpel excision as the hospital did not have access to a surgical laser at this time). Histopathology of the excised mass revealed Besnoitia cysts adjacent to the sarcoid tissue in all donkeys, except for donkey no. 1 where only Besnoitia cysts were detected, without any sarcoid neoplasm as was initially suspected and donkey no. 3 where the histopathology was suggestive, but not definitive of sarcoid for the flank mass and no sarcoid tissue was identified in the penile sheath mass
  4. dHistological examination of surgical biopsies from the 8 donkeys identified 1 to 3 Besnoitia cysts per biopsy surrounded by mild to moderate number of lymphocytes and/or eosinophils