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Table 3 Prevalence of detectable HEV RNA in faeces, serum, and overall, according to presence of the enteroparasite species analysed

From: Protist enteroparasites in wild boar (Sus scrofa ferus) and black Iberian pig (Sus scrofa domesticus) in southern Spain: a protective effect on hepatitis E acquisition?

Positive for HEV+ HEV− P-value HEVs+ HEVs− P-value HEVf+ HEVf− P-value
n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%) n (%)
Global swine population
 Giardia duodenalis 8 (11.0) 56 (22.0) 0.044 4 (7.3) 60 (22) 0.014 4 (13.3) 60 (20.1) 0.473
 Cryptosporidium spp. 7 (9.6) 20 (7.8) 0.632 5 (9.1) 22 (8.1) 0.789 3 (10.0) 24 (8.1) 0.725
 Blastocystis sp. 22 (30.1) 115 (45.1) 0.023 12 (21.8) 125 (45.8) 0.001 15 (50.0) 122 (40.9) 0.340
 Neobalantidium spp.a 23 (32.9) 80 (34.5) 0.886 17 (32.1) 86 (34.5) 0.873 9 (31.0) 94 (34.4) 0.838
 Strongyloides spp. 5 (6.8) 24 (9.4) 0.642 3 (5.5) 26 (9.5) 0.440 3 (10.0) 26 (8.7) 0.738
Black Iberian pigs
 Giardia duodenalis 3 (7.1) 29 (20.1) 0.062 1 (3.2) 31 (20.0) 0.020 2 (10.5) 30 (18.0) 0.537
 Cryptosporidium spp. 3 (7.1) 15 (10.4) 0.768 3 (9.7) 15 (9.7) 0.990 1 (5.3) 17 (10.2) 0.700
 Blastocystis sp. 22 (52.4) 114 (79.2) 0.001 12 (38.7) 124 (80.0) < 0.001 15 (78.9) 121 (72.5) 0.785
 Neobalantidium spp.b 18 (43.9) 69 (55.6) 0.210 13 (41.9) 74 (55.2) 0.232 8 (44.4) 79 (53.7) 0.467
 Strongyloides spp. 4 (9.5) 18 (12.5) 0.788 3 (9.7) 19 (12.3) 0.990 2 (10.5) 20 (12.0) 0.990
Wild boars
 Giardia duodenalis 5 (16.1) 27 (24.3) 0.467 3 (12.5) 29 (24.6) 0.285 2 (18.2) 30 (22.9) 0.990
 Cryptosporidium spp. 4 (12.9) 5 (4.5) 0.105 2 (8.3) 7 (5.9) 0.648 2 (18.2) 7 (5.3) 0.146
 Blastocystis sp. 0 (0) 1 (0.9) 0.990 0 (0) 1 (0.8) 0.990 0 (0) 1 (0.8) 0.990
 Neobalantidium spp.c 5 (17.2) 11 (10.2) 0.330 4 (18.2) 12 (10.4) 0.290 1 (9.1) 15 (11.9) 0.990
 Strongyloides spp. 1 (3.2) 6 (5.4) 0.990 0 (0) 7 (5.9) 0.602 1 (9.1) 6 (4.6) 0.439
  1. aAvailable in 302 swines
  2. bAvailable in 165 black Iberian pigs
  3. cAvailable in 137 wild boars
  4. Note: Bold values denote statistical significance at the P < 0.05 level
  5. Abbreviations: HEV, hepatitis E virus; HEVs+, positive serum samples for hepatitis E virus; HEVf+, positive faecal samples for hepatitis E virus