Skip to main content

Table 2 Prevalence of co-infections in field-collected ticks in Latvia, 2017–2019 (n = 4593)

From: Large-scale countrywide screening for tick-borne pathogens in field-collected ticks in Latvia during 2017–2019

Pathogen co-infections I. ricinus (95% CI) I. persulcatus (95% CI) D. reticulatus (95% CI) All ticks P-value a
Male Female Nymph Total Male Female Nymph Total Male Female Nymph Total
Bo. burgdorferi (s.l.) + Rickettsia* 3.96 5.14 0.78 3.41 (2.88–4.04) 0 1.35 14.29 1.27 (0.05–4.79) 0 0.48 0 0.34 (0.01–1.30) 2.94 < 0.0001*
Bo. burgdorferi (s.l.) + Babesia 0.88 0.91 0.09 0.65 (0.44–0.96) 0 1.35 0 0.63 (0.01–3.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.57 0.0883
Rickettsia two species 0.59 0.30 0.43 0.44 (0.27–0.71) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0.58 0.24 0 0.34 (0.01–1.30) 0.41 1.0000
Rickettsia + A. phagocytophilum 0.51 0.15 0.09 0.26 (0.13–0.49) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.22 0.5609
Rickettsia + Babesia 0.44 0.23 0 0.23 (0.12–0.45) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0.48 0 0.34 (0.01–1.30) 0.22 0.7622
Bo. burgdorferi (s.l.) two species 0.22 0.30 0 0.18 (0.08–0.38) 0 1.35 0 0.63 (0.01–3.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.17 0.2195
Bo. miyamotoi + Rickettsia 0.22 0.23 0.09 0.18 (0.08–0.38) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.15 0.6901
TBEV + Rickettsia 0.15 0.08 0.09 0.10 (0.03–0.28) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 1.16 0 0 0.34 (0.01–1.30) 0.13 0.3410
TBEV + Bo. burgdorferi (s.l.) 0.22 0.08 0 0.10 (0.03–0.28) 1.30 0 0 0.63 (0.01–3.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.11 0.1770
Two pathogens others 0.22 0.30 0 0.18 (0.08–0.38) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.15 0.6901
Two pathogens total* 7.41 7.70 1.56 5.76 (5.06–6.54) 1.30 4.05 14.29 3.16 (1.16–7.39) 1.74 1.19 0 1.34 (0.63–2.68) 5.09 < 0.0001*
Three pathogens total 0.44 0.83 0.35 0.55 (0.35–0.84) 0 0 0 0 (0–2.86) 0 0 0 0 (0–0.77) 0.46 0.1565
Co-infections total* 7.85 8.53 1.91 6.30 (5.58–7.12) 1.30 4.05 14.29 3.16 (1.16–7.39) 1.74 1.19 0 1.34 (0.63–2.68) 5.55 < 0.0001*
Total no. of ticks 1363 1324 1153 3840 77 74 7 158 172 419 4 595 4593  
  1. aP-value was calculated for the total numbers
  2. *Statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05)
  3. Abbreviations: CI, confidence interval; TBEV, tick-borne encephalitis virus