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Table 1 Evolution of the San Alfonso strain resistance (percentage of larval mortality) over the years without selection pressure

From: Physiological evidence that three known mutations in the para-sodium channel gene confer cypermethrin knockdown resistance in Rhipicephalus microplus

Year Organophosphorous Pyrethroids Amidines
Coumaphos Diazinon Chlorpiriphos Cypermethrin Deltamethrin Flumethrin Amitraz
2001a 98.60 58.6 99.70 37.50 30.80 14.50 25.20
2006a 20.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
2012 100 90.58 99.10 0 0 0 0
2013 91.88 91.56 99.57 0 0 0 0.62
2016 73.24 100 100 0 0 0 10.76
  1. aData from 2001 and 2006 has already been reported in [23, 37]