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Table 3 Contamination of vegetables and fruits with Cyclospora cayetanensis

From: Detection of human intestinal protozoan parasites in vegetables and fruits: a review

Location Detection method Vegetable or fruit item No. of samples tested No. of positive samples (%) References
Cameroon Sediment smear, followed by light microscopy Green cabbage 30 0 [66]
Red cabbage 30 0
Lettuce 30 10 (33.3)
Cucumber 30 0
Carrots 30 0
Green pepper 30 20 (66.7)
China PCR Lettuce 200 1 [36]
Coriander 152 0
Celery 70 0
Baby bok choy 59 0
Chinese cabbage 47 0
Leaf lettuce 44 1 (2.3)
Water spinach 28 0
Crown daisy 27 0
Fennel plant 26 0
Endive 25 0
Spinach 20 0
Schizonepeta 20 0
Cabbage 18 0
Leaf mustard 11 0
Chinese chive 132 0
Chive 128 0
Cucumber 41 0
Watermelon 15 0
Potato 3 0
Bean (kidney/French bean) 28 0
Green chili 5 0
Costa Rica Zielh-Nielsen and Weber stain Lettuce 50 2 (4.0) [71]
Parsley 50 0
Cilantro 50 0
Strawberries 50 0
Blackberries 50 0
Egypt Weber modified trichrome and modified Ziehl-Neelsen stains Fresh fruit juices   14.5 [80]
Ethiopia Modifed Zeihl-Neelsen stain Fruits and vegetables 360 18 (5.0) [19]
Ethiopia Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain Fruits and vegetables 360 25 (6.9) [32]
Ethiopia Modified Zeihl-Neelsen stain Tomato 100 4 (4.0) [14]
Cabbage 96 0
Green pepper 66 2 (3.0)
Carrot 62 0
Salad 23 1 (4.5)
Ghana Direct wet mount, trichrome modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain Tiger nuts 40 9 (22.5) [81]
Ghana Ziehl-Neelsen stain Cabbage 90 5 (5.6) [12]
Green pepper 55 3 (5.5)
Carro 47 3 (6.4)
Onion 70 3 (4.3)
Tomato 31 3 (9.7)
Lettuce 102 3 (2.9)
Italy qPCR Vegetables 49 6 (12.2) [48]
Italy modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain and PCR Ready-to-eat packaged salad 648 8 (1.2) [23]
Korea Multiplex qPCR Perilla leaves 72 0 [48]
Winter-grown cabbage 70 4 (5.7)
Chives 73 0
Sprouts 72 1 (1.4)
Blueberries 44 1 (2.3)
Cherry tomatoes 73 1 (1.4)
Peru Direct microscopic observation, acid-fast staining, and immunofluorescent assay Vegetables   1.8 [83]
Vietnam Modified acid-fast smear by light and UV epifluorescence microscopy Basil 96 10 (10.4) [47]
Coriander sativum 80 3 (3.8)
Coriander 86 10 (11.6)
Lettuce 79 8 (10.1)
Vietnamese mint 61 6 (9.8)
Marjoram 26 2 (7.7)
Persicaria 68 7 (10.3)
Total    4628 180 (3.9)