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Table 5 Contamination of vegetables and fruits with Toxoplasma gondii

From: Detection of human intestinal protozoan parasites in vegetables and fruits: a review

Location Detection method Vegetable or fruit item No. of samples tested No. of positive samples (%) Toxoplasma gondii genotypes identified (n) References
Brazil PCR Smooth lettuce 62 1 (0.6) Toxo4-5 D (1) [62]
Crisp head lettuce 106 4 (3.7) B22-23 D (4)
Chicory 40 2 (5.0) B22-23 D (1); Toxo4-5 D (1)
Rocket 7 1 (14.3) B22-23 D (1)
Parsley 5 1 (20.0) B22-23 D (1)
Brazil PCR Vegetables 21 3 (14.3) N/A (3) [45]
China Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) Lettuce 71 5 (7.0) Type I (4); Type II (1) [63]
Spinach 50 2 (4.0) Type I (2)
Pak choi 34 1 (2.9) Type I (1)
Chinese cabbage 26 0  
Rape 22 1 (4.5) Type II (1)
Asparagus 18 0  
Chrysanthemum coronarium 16 0  
Endive 14 0  
Chinese chives 11 0  
Cabbage 9 0  
Red cabbage 8 1 (12.5) Type II (1)
Czech Republic Triplex real time PCR Carrots 93 7 (7.5)   [64]
Cucumbers 109 13 (11.9) Type II (5)
Salads 90 8 (8.9) Type II (2)
Italy qPCR Ready-to-eat packaged salad 648 5 (0.8) Type I (5) [23]
Poland qPCR Strawberries 60 0   [61]
Radish 60 3 (5.0) Type I (2); Type II (1)
Carrot 46 9 (19.6) Type I (3); Type II (1)
Lettuce 50 9 (18.0) Type I (1)
Total    1676 63 (3.8)