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Table 6 Contamination of vegetables and fruits with Balantidium coli, Cystoisospora belli, Blastocystis sp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi

From: Detection of human intestinal protozoan parasites in vegetables and fruits: a review

Location Detection method Vegetable or fruit item No. of samples tested No. of positive samples (%) Identified species or genotypes (n) References
Balantidium coli
Bangladesh Sediment smears, followed by light microscopy Vegetables 200 8 (4.0) B. coli [52]
Brazil Sediment smears, followed by light microscopy Loose leaf lettucea 1 1 B. coli [30]
Red lettucea 1 1 B. coli
Curly lettucea 1 1 B. coli
Iceberg lettucea 1 1 B. coli
Parsleya 1 1 B. coli
Chivea 1 1 B. coli
Coriandera 1   
Cameroon Sediment smears, followed by light microscopy Green cabbage 30 3 (10.0) B. coli (3) [66]
Red cabbage 30 7 (23.3) B. coli (7)
Lettuce 30 8 (26.7) B. coli (8)
Cucumber 30 5 (16.7) B. coli (5)
Carrots 30 4 (13.3) B. coli (4)
Green pepper 30 2 (6.7) B. coli (2)
Ethiopia Sediment smears, followed by light microscopy Tomato 100 0   [14]
Cabbage 96 4 (4.2) B. coli-like (4)
Green pepper 66 6 (9.1) B. coli-like (6)
Carrot 62 4 (6.5) B. coli-like (4)
Salad 23 1 (4.3) B. coli-like (1)
Ghana Sediment smears, followed by light microscopy Cabbage 72 21 (29.2) B. coli (21) [67]
Lettuce 72 3 (4.2) B. coli (3)
Carrot 72 2 (2.8) B. coli (2)
Spring onion 72 1 (1.4) B. coli (1)
Tomatoes 72 22 (30.6) B. coli (22)
Subtotal    1087 101 (9.3)   
Cystoisospora belli
Ethiopia Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain Fruits and vegetables 360 11 (3.1) I. belli (11) [32]
Ethiopia Modified Ziehl-Neelsen stain Tomatoes 45 0   [43]
Lettuce 45 1 (2.2) C. belli (1)
Carrot 45 2 (4.4) C. belli (2)
Cabbage 45 4 (8.8) C. belli (4)
Green pepper 45 0  
Avocado 45 0  
Ghana Ziehl-Neelsen stain Cabbage 90 0   [12]
Green pepper 55 0  
Carro 47 0  
Onion 70 0  
Tomato 31 1 (3.2) I. beli (1)
Lettuce 102 0  
Subtotal    1025 19 (1.9)   
Blastocystis sp.
Brazil Sediment being stained in Lugolʼs solution Lettuce 100 15 (15.0) B. hominis (15) [15]
Coriander 100 19 (19.0) B. hominis (19)
Italy Lugolʼs stain, Giemsa Stain, and PCR Ready-to-eat packaged salad 648 3 (0.5) B. hominis (3) [23]
Subtotal    848 37 (4.4)   
Enterocytozoon bieneusi
China PCR Lettuce 200 14 (7.0) E. bieneusi genotype CM8 (2); CD6 (7); EbpA (3); Henan-IV (1) [36]
Coriander 152 1 (0.7) E. bieneusi genotype CM8 (1)  
Celery 70 1 (1.4) E. bieneusi genotype EbpA (1)  
Baby bok choy 59 1 (1.7) E. bieneusi genotype CHV3 (1)  
Chinese cabbage 47 0   
Leaf lettuce 44 2 (4.5) E. bieneusi genotype CHG19 (1)  
Water spinach 28 3 (10.7) E. bieneusi genotype CD6 (1); BEB8 (1); CTS3 (1)  
Crown daisy 27 0   
Fennel plant 26 1 (3.9) E. bieneusi genotype EbpC (1)  
Endive 25 1 (4.0) E. bieneusi genotype Henan-IV (1)  
Spinach 20 0   
Schizonepeta 20 0   
Cabbage 18 0   
Leaf mustard 11 0   
Chinese chive 132 6 (4.5) E. bieneusi genotype CD6 (1); EbpA (2); EbpC (1); CHV1 (1)  
Chive 128 4 (1.4) E. bieneusi genotype CD6 (2); CHV2 (1); CTS3 (1)  
Cucumber 41 1 (2.4) E. bieneusi genotype CD6 (1)  
Watermelon 15 1 (6.7) E. bieneusi genotype CD6 (1)  
Potato 3 1 (33.3) E. bieneusi genotype CHV4 (1)  
Bean (kidney/French bean) 28 4 (14.3) E. bieneusi genotype CD6 (4)  
Green chili 5 0   
Costa Rica Zielh-Nielsen stain Lettuce 50 16 (32.0) E. bieneusi (16) [71]
Parsley 50 0  
Cilantro 50 2 (4.0) E. bieneusi (2)
Strawberries 50 1 (2.0) E. bieneusi (1)
Blackberries 50 0  
Poland Conventional stain and FISH Berries 25 6 (24.0) E. intestinalis (4); E. bieneusi (2) [21]
Sprouts 20 1 (5.0) E. bieneusi (1)
Vegetables 35 2 (5.7) E. cuniculi (1); E. bieneusi (1)
Sub-total    1429 52 (3.6)   
  1. aSingle sample in a case report