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Table 3 Potential risk factors and clinical signs reported in the survey study: in all enrolled dogs, and in the dogs that were positive or negative for Angiostrongylus vasorum infection

From: Field safety and efficacy of an orally administered combination of sarolaner, moxidectin and pyrantel (Simparica Trio®) for the prevention of angiostrongylosis in dogs presented as veterinary patients

Category All dogs
(n = 1623)
Dogs positive for A. vasorum
(n = 198)
Dogs negative for A. vasorum
(n = 1425)
Fisher’s exact test
n % n % n % Pa/p-valueb
Risk factors
 History of eating snails/frogs 1001 61.7 117 59.1 884 62.0 0.0449/0.4360
 Active hunting dog 411 25.3 56 28.3 355 24.9 0.0404/0.3373
 Foxes seen in the area 1437 88.5 184 92.9 1253 87.9 0.0104/0.0422
 Previous history or ongoing A. vasorum infection in household 162 10.0 39 19.7 123 8.6 4.24×10−6/< 0.0001
Clinical signs
 Coughing 812 50.0 115 58.1 697 48.9 0.0033, 0.0185
 Dyspnea 358 22.1 61 30.8 297 20.8 0.0006/0.0024
 Tachypnoea 290 17.9 48 24.2 242 17.0 0.0039/0.0171
 Increased lung sounds at auscultation or crackles 356 21.9 79 39.9 277 19.4 4.36×10−10/< 0.0001
 Bleeding disorder 84 5.2 31 15.7 53 3.7 1.27×10−9/< 0.0001
 Pale mucous membranes 160 9.9 54 27.3 106 7.4 1.73×10−14/< 0.0001
 Petechiae or ecchymosis 55 3.4 25 12.6 30 2.1 3.42×10−10/< 0.0001
 Exercise intolerance 449 27.7 100 50.5 349 24.5 1.62×10−13/< 0.0001
 Syncope 48 3.0 15 7.6 33 2.3 0.0002/0.0003
 Seizure 44 2.7 11 5.6 33 2.3 0.0087/0.0164
 Tremor 51 3.1 11 5.6 40 2.8 0.0224/0.0484
 Blindness 20 1.2 5 2.5 15 1.1 0.0591/0.0862
 Thoracic radiographic or ultrasonographic signs 159 9.8 54 27.3 105 7.4 1.27×10−14/< 0.0001
 Diarrhea 145 8.9 13 6.6 132 9.3 0.0516/0.2338
 Vomiting 156 9.6 26 13.1 130 9.1 0.0208/0.0930
 Laboratory abnormalitiesc 179 11.0 54 27.3 125 8.8 3.44×10−12/< 0.0001
 Other signsd 104 6.4 34 17.2 70 4.9 7.16×10−9/< 0.0001
  1. aP = the hypergeometric probability for the observed table (risk factor × A. vasorum status) for the Fisher’s exact test
  2. bTwo-sided p-value for Fisher’s exact test
  3. cAnemia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, eosinophilia, hyperglobulinemia
  4. dOther signs included weight loss, inappetence, lethargy, ascites, melena, sneezing, heart murmur and other neurological signs not listed in the table
  5. Note: P-values in bold font indicate significant differences between positive and negative animals