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Table 1 A comparison of studies that have investigated the relationship between ticks and deer including the scale they investigated (regional, 1 km2–100 km2; local, 1 m2–1 km2), whether the deer presence/absence was recorded through controlling deer or deer density was measured and the methods used to measure deer presence or density

From: Sampling scale and season influence the observed relationship between the density of deer and questing Ixodes ricinus nymphs

Study Deer population Spatial scale Methods to measure deer density Range of deer density recorded Observed relationship with ticks
Wilson et al. [17] Presence/absence Regional (single site) Positive
Daniels et al. [18] Presence/absence Regional Deer signs Positive
Rand et al. [19] Presence/absence Regional (two sites) Positive
Perkins et al. [20] Presence/absence Local Non-linear (effect of site size)
Ruiz-Fons & Gilbert [21] Presence/Absence Local Dung pellet counts 0–0.45 (deer dung index) Positive
Gilbert et al. [22] Presence/absence: reduced density Multiple (regional and local) Dung pellet counts 8–50 deer/km2; 0–0.25 (deer dung index) Positive
Hofmeester et al. [5] Presence/absence: observed deer density Regional Camera trapping 0.001–0.84 (camera passage rate) Positive (presence): None (abundance)
Deblinger et al. [23] Reduced density Regional Hunting records; census surveys 39–156 deer Positive
Stafford et al. [24] Reduced density Regional Marked population 97.3–13.1 deer/km2 Positive
Jordan et al. [25] Reduced density Regional Aerial surveys 24.3–45.6 deer/km2 None
Kilpatrick et al. [26] Reduced density Regional Aerial surveys; marked population 0–9.8 deer/km2 Positive
Wilson et al. [27] Observed deer density Regional Dung pellet counts; deer signs 0–145 pellet groups Positive (larvae): None (nymphs)
Wilson et al. [28] Observed deer density Local Radio telemetry 0–15 deer Positive
Rand et al. [13] Observed deer density Multiple (regional and local) Hunting records; dung pellet counts 44–67 deer/km2 Positive
Millins et al. [11] Observed deer density Local Dung pellet counts 0–0.45 (deer dung index) None
Jordan & Schulze [29] Observed deer density Regional Browsing counts 26.9–52.8 % (browse plots) None
Ostfeld et al. [30] Observed deer density Regional Hunting and browsing counts Not reported Positive
Gilbert et al. [31] Observed deer density Regional Dung pellet counts 0.05–0.5 Positive
Tagliapietra et al. [32] Observed deer density Regional Census surveys 0–24 deer/km2 Positive
Cagnacci et al. [33] Observed deer density Regional Dung pellet counts 2–15.5 deer/100 ha Non-linear
James et al. [10] Observed deer density Regional Dung pellet counts Not reported Positive
Qviller et al. [34] Observed deer density Regional Previous deer home range data 32–42 deer Positive
Werden et al. [35] Observed deer density Regional Dung pellet counts 0–220 pellet groups/ha Positive