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Table 2 Distribution of frequencies and risk factors associated with the presence of anti-L. infantum antibodies by IFAT in sampled horses (n = 660) according to the univariate analysis by the generalized linear model

From: Detecting antibodies to Leishmania infantum in horses from areas with different epizooticity levels of canine leishmaniosis and a retrospective revision of Italian data

Variable Category Positive/examined % Wald’s Chi-square β ± SE OR 95% CI P-value
Origin Central Italy 56/365 15.3 1.335 0.265 ± 0.2296 1.304 0.831–2.045 0.248
Northern Italy 36/295 12.2   0 1   
Altitude (m.a.s.l.)     63.532     0.025
 < 200 18/147 12.2   0.531 ± 0.4021 1.7 0.773–3.738 0.187
200–500 31/172 18.0   0.985 ± 0.3711 2.678 1.294–5.543 0.008
 > 500 11/145 7.6   0 1   
Age Continuous   5.243 0.040 ± 0.0175 1.041 1.006–1.077 0.022
Sex Female 32/287 11.1 3.280 − 0.426 ± 0.2353 0.653 0.412–1.036 0.070
Male 59/366 16.1   0 1   
Reproductive status (only males) Geldings 46/245 18.8 3.770 0.653 ± 0.3361 1.920 0.994–3.711 0.052
Stallions 13/121 10.7   0 1   
Breed morphotype     60.020     0.003
Mesomorphic 17/140 12.1   0.691 ± 0.4310 1.996 0.858–4.646 0.109
Meso-dolichomorphic 44/229 19.2   1.234 ± 0.3833 3.435 1.621–7.282 0.001
Meso-brachymorphic 0/6 0.0  
Dolichomorphic 9/139 6.5   0 1   
Horse vs ponies Horses 74 12.4 8.175 0 1   
Ponies 9 32.1   1.210 ± 4.233 3.354 1.463–7.689 0.004
  1. Abbreviations: m.a.s.l., meters above sea level; β ± SE, coefficient ± standard error; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval
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