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Table 3 Distribution of frequencies and risk factors associated with the presence of anti-L. infantum antibodies by IFAT in sampled horses according to the multivariable generalized linear model

From: Detecting antibodies to Leishmania infantum in horses from areas with different epizooticity levels of canine leishmaniosis and a retrospective revision of Italian data

Variable Category Positive/examined %* Wald’s Chi-square β ± SE OR 95% CI P-value
Origin     2.201     0.138
Central Italy 56/365 15.3 5.249 1.835 ± 0.8011 6.268 1.304–30.132 0.022
Northern Italy 36/295 12.2   0 1   
Altitude (m.a.s.l.)     6.248     0.044
 < 200 18/147 12.2 3.980 1.553 ± 0.7786 4.727 1.028–21.746 0.046
200–500 31/172 18 10.391 2.437 ± 0.7560 11.440 2.599–50.347 0.001
 > 500 11/145 7.6   0 1   
Origin × altitude (m.a.s.l.)     9.257     0.010
Central Italy ×  < 200 6/36 16.7ab 1.905 − 1.335 ± 0.9671 0.263 0.040–1.752 0.168
Central Italy × 200–500 9/75 12.0b 8.185 − 2.601 ± 0.9093 0.074 0.012–0.441 0.004
Central Italy ×  > 500 9/65 13.8b   0 1   
Northern Italy ×  < 200 12/111 10.8a   0 1   
Northern Italy × 200–500 22/97 22.7b   0 1   
Northern Italy ×  > 500 2/80 2.5   0 1   
  1. *Values of seropositivity per range of altitude with different superscript letters (a, b) are statistically different from each other. P-value < 0.05, GLM, pairwise comparison
  2. Abbreviations: m.a.s.l., meters above sea level; β ± SE, coefficient ± standard error; OR, odds ratio; CI, confidence interval
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