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Table 2. The prevalence of helminths and protozoa in relation to environmental factors in country of origin

From: Socio-demographic influences on the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among workers in Qatar

  N % Combined helminths Combined protozoa
Prevalence (95% CL) Odds ratio (95% CL) Prevalence (95% CL) Odds ratio (95% CL)
Ownership of home
 Owned 2306 92.7 7.2 (6.18–8.30) 1 18.0 (16.43–19.56) 1
 Rented 180 7.2 4.4 (1.77–10.06) 0.596 (0.288–1.231) 15.0 (9.24–22.86) 0.804 (0.527–1.227)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{1}^{2}\) = 2.26, P = 0.77   \(\chi_{1}^{2}\) = 0.24, P = 0.63  
No. of people living sharing house
 1 or 2 87 3.5 4.6 (1.20–13.59) 1 3.4 (0.69–11.86) 1
 3 398 16.0 6.5 (4.08–10.24) 1.450 (0.493–4.267) 10.6 (7.25–14.93) 3.303 (1.000–10.915)
 4 566 22.8 6.5 (5.06–8.36) 1.451 (0.504–1.178) 11.8 (9.85–14.13) 3.760 (1.156–12.229)
 5 502 20.2 6.4 (4.98–8.06) 1.413 (0.487–4.100) 13.7 (11.71–16.02) 4.462 (1.372–14.511)
 6 361 14.5 6.6 (4.27–10.15) 1.478 (0.499–4.375) 12.2 (8.84–16.48) 3.886 (1.178–12.827)
 7 or 8 347 13.9 10.1 (7.08–14.04) 2.328 (0.804–6.735) 11.8 (8.57–15.97) 3.752 (1.134–12.417)
 9 to 50 225 9.1 7.6 (5.41–10.39) 1.696 (0.554–5.190) 10.7 (8.07–13.88) 3.343 (0.980–11.403)
 Statistical test   \(\chi_{6}^{2}\) = 6.19, P = 0.40   \(\chi_{6}^{2}\) = 10.47, P = 0.11  
No. of rooms in house
 1 207 8.3 6.3 (4.38–8.8213) 1 8.7 (6.47–11.58) 1
 2 889 35.7 7.0 (5.10–9.37) 1.119 (0.603–2.076) 11.6 (9.17–14.49) 1.376 (0.814–2.327)
 3 739 29.7 7.7 (5.92–9.96) 1.241 (0.669–2.326) 11.8 (9.55–14.40) 1.401 (0.822–2.387)
 4 407 16.4 6.9 (4.32–10.71) 1.102 (0.558–2.177) 15.2 (11.26–20.22) 1.887 (1.084–3.283)
 5–25 244 9.8 6.1 (4.18–8.89) 0.977 (0.454–2.105) 8.2 (5.91–11.27) 0.937 (0.482–1.824)
 Statistical test   \(\chi_{4}^{2}\) = 1.02, P = 0.91   χ 24  = 9.72, P = 0.045  
House construction
 Earth and mud 247 9.9 6.9 (4.77–9.73) 1 15.0 (11.83–18.72) 1
 Wood 385 15.4 7.3 (4.70–11.05) 1.061 (0.568–1.982) 10.1 (6.97–14.34) 0.640 (0.395–1.035)
 Bricks/stones 782 31.5 7.7 (5.83–9.99) 1.124 (0.643–1.966) 12.9 (10.53–15.73) 0.842 (0.550–1.265)
 Concrete 1057 42.5 6.3 (4.91–8.05) 0.916 (0.528–1.589) 10.4 (8.57–12.25) 0.659 (0.441–0.985)
 Metal 15 0.6 20 (5.69–46.57) 3.382 (0.870–13.148) 20.0 (5.69–46.57) 1.419 (0.381–5.272)
 Statistical test   \(\chi_{4}^{2}\) = 3.99, P = 0.41   \(\chi_{4}^{2}\) = 7.05, P = 0.13  
Floor of house
 Soil 424 17.1 8.0 (5.19–12.22) 1 18.9 (14.30–24.40) 1
 Sand 173 6.9 6.9 (3.51–13.11) 0.855 (0.432–1.693) 7.5 (3.83–13.93) 0.349 (0.189–0.646)
 Natural hard surface 99 3.9 10.1 (4.12–21.78) 1.289 (0.614–2.706) 4.0 (0.75–13.67) 0.181 (0.065–0.507)
 Straw/other overlay 51 2.1 7.8 (3.67–15.18) 0.976 (0.332–2.873) 9.8 (5.17–17.28) 0.467 (0.180–1.214)
 Concrete/brick 1513 60.9 6.7 (5.42–7.93) 0.820 (0.548–1.230) 11.4 (9.83–13.04) 0.555 (0.415–0.742)
 Wooden floor boards 100 4.0 6.0 (2.65–12.38) 0.732 (0.299–1.795) 4.0 (1.38–9.85) 0.179 (0.064–0.500)
 Linoleum 62 2.5 9.7 (4.80–18.08) 1.229 (0.494–3.059) 12.9 (6.94–21.86) 0.637 (0.292–1.392)
 Carpet 6 0.2 0.0 (0–41.13) 0 0.0 (0.0–41.13)  
 Tiles 58 2.3 3.4 (0.99–9.64) 0.410 (0.096–1.752) 5.2 (1.98–12.15) 0.235 (0.072–0.769)
 Statistical test   \(\chi_{8}^{2}\) = 5.26, P = 0.73   χ 28  = 41.10, P < 0.001  
Toilet
 Flushing 820 32.9 7.2 (5.37–9.51) 1 7.6 (5.69–9.93) 1
 Pit latrine 1585 63.8 6.9 (5.63–8.12) 0.953 (0.686–1.323) 13.9 (12.24–15.65) 1.981 (1.474–2.661)
 None/Bush 81 3.3 8.6 (3.60–18.32) 1.220 (0.538–2.768) 8.6 (3.60–18.32) 1.156 (0.511–2.618)
 Statistical test   \(\chi_{2}^{2}\) = 0.39, P = 0.82   χ 22  = 23.43, P < 0.001  
Household contents index
 0 385 15.5 9.4 (6.37–13.5) 1 16.1 (12.11–20.97) 1
 1 413 16.7 9.0 (5.96–13.28) 0.954 (0.589–1.544) 11.1 (7.67–15.71) 0.653 (0.432–0.984)
 2 824 33.1 5.7 (4.1–7.83) 0.586 (0.373–0.922) 14.9 (12.3–17.94) 0.914 (0.654–1.275)
 3 295 11.9 5.4 (3.49–8.31) 0.556 (0.302–1.203) 8.8 (6.27–12.31) 0.504 (0.310–0.818)
 4 205 8.2 7.3 (5.26–9.98) 0.765 (0.409–1.434) 4.9 (3.27–7.15) 0.267 (0.134–0.533)
 5 95 3.8 8.4 (3.15–19.05) 0.891 (0.400–1.987) 6.3 (1.94–16.6) 0.351 (0.147–0.839)
 6 67 2.6 11.9 (6.3–21.17) 1.315 (0.582–2.968) 7.5 (3.18–15.8) 0.420 (0.162–1.087)
 7 48 1.9 0.0 (0–10.78) 4.2 (0.47–18.16) 0.227 (0.054–0.958)
 8 55 2.2 1.8 (0.29–7.26) 0.180 (0.024–1.337) 1.8 (0.29–7.26) 0.096 (0.013–0.710)
 9 63 2.5 4.8 (1.65–11.99) 0.485 (0.145–1.624) 4.8 (1.65–11.99) 0.260 (0.079–0.857)
10 36 1.4 11.1 (4.37–24.28) 1.212 (0.406–3.621) 16.7 (7.75–31.08) 1.042 (0.416–2.609)
 Statistical test   χ 21  = 22.58, P = 0.012   χ 210  = 48.56, P < 0.001  
Provision of household water
 Inside tap 1329 53.5 6.8 (5.45–8.32) 1 13.6 (11.78–15.46) 1
 Outside tap 46 1.9 6.5 (1.31–20.39) 0.960 (0.292–3.157) 8.7 (2.38–23.46) 0.605 (0.214–1.705)
 Shared tap 27 1.1 3.7 (0.19–18.12) 0.529 (0.071–3.947) 0.0 (0.00–12.38)  
 Covered well 126 5.1 8.7 (5.19–14.24) 1.317 (0.684–2.534) 4.8 (2.32–9.24) 0.317 (0.138–0.731)
 Uncovered well 440 17.7 8.2 (5.27–12.52) 1.227 (0.819–1.830) 13.4 (9.52–18.43) 0.982 (0.716–1.347)
 Borehole 164 6.6 6.1 (2.99–11.72) 0.894 (0.455–1.755) 9.8 (5.55–16.26) 0.686 (0.400–1.176)
 River 54 2.2 9.3 (4.69–16.96) 1.405 (0.547–3.613) 16.7 (10.21–25.74) 1.269 (0.610–2.639)
 Bottled water 300 12.1 6.3 (4.18–9.42) 0.931 (0.558–1.552) 5.0 (3.15–7.82) 0.334 (0.194–0.575)
 Statistical test   \(\chi_{7}^{2}\) = 2.9, P = 0.89   χ 27  = 38.22, P < 0.001  
Farmer cultivate food
 No 1646 66.2 7.2 (5.92–8.42) 1 12.7 (11.09–14.31) 1
 Yes 840 33.8 6.8 (4.99–9.08) 0.943 (0.679–1.308) 9.6 (7.49–12.28) 0.734 (0.559–0.962)
 Statistical test   \(\chi_{1}^{2}\) = 0.13, P = 0.72   χ 21  = 5.18, P = 0.023  
Domesticated animals
 No 1240 49.9 6.3 (4.97–7.85) 1 11.7 (9.90–13.48) 1
 Yes 1246 50.1 7.8 (6.31–9.50) 1.258 (0.924–1.713) 11.6 (9.86–13.42) 0.995 (0.779–1.271)
 Statistical test   (\(\chi_{1}^{2}\) = 2.13, P = 0.15)   (\(\chi_{1}^{2}\) = 0.002, P = 0.97)  
No. of species of animals
 0 1251 50.3 6.2 (4.93–7.78) 1 11.7 (9.89–13.45) 1
 1 690 27.8 7.5 (5.81–9.67) 1.226 (0.852–1.764) 12.2 (9.98–14.74) 1.049 (0.788–1.396)
 2 308 12.4 7.8 (5.37–11.20) 1.271 (0.790–2.045) 13.0 (9.79–17.04) 1.130 (0.776–1.643)
 3 123 4.9 9.8 (5.99–15.26) 1.626 (0.859–3.078) 6.5 (3.60–11.34) 0.527 (0.252–1.100)
 4 51 2.1 13.7 (8.04–22.07) 2.392 (0.043–5.486) 13.7 (8.04–22.07) 0.473 (0.145–1.538)
 5 62 2.5 3.2 (0.84–9.61) 0.500 (0.120–2.089) 14.5 (8.23–23.97) 1.285 (0.618–2.650)
 6 1 0.1 0.0 (0.00–95.0) 0.0 (0.00–95.0)
 Statistical test    \(\chi_{6}^{2}\) = 7.67, P = 0.26   \(\chi_{6}^{2}\) = 7.08, P = 0.31  
  1. Note: The statistical tests outputs that are significant are emphasized in bolditalic, as is also the highest prevalence within each factor level