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Table 2 Results of GLMMs (best models) explaining flea parameters of main rodent host species

From: Patterns of flea infestation in rodents and insectivores from intensified agro-ecosystems, Northwest Spain

Host Fleas Prevalence Mean abundance Mean intensity
Predictor Estimate ± SE Z-value Predictor Estimate ± SE Z-value Predictor Estimate ± SE Z-value
M. arvalis All Crop (cereal) 0.40 ± 0.16 2.57* Crop (cereal) 0.51 ± 0.09 5.37*** Crop (cereal) a 0.38 ± 0.73 5.16***
Crop (fallow) 0.38 ± 0.14 2.67** Crop (fallow) 0.47 ± 0.09 5.43*** Crop (fallow) 0.36 ± 0.66 5.47***
Month (July) 0.60 ± 0.09 3.17** Month (July) − 0.20 ± 0.12 − 1.64 Month (July) − 0.31 ± 0.10 − 3.16**
Month (November) 0.47 ± 0.23 2.02* Month (November) 0.04 ± 0.15 0.29 Month (November) − 0.13 ± 0.12 − 1.11
CAG Crop (cereal) 0.24 ± 0.15 1.62 Crop (cereal) 0.30 ± 0.13 2.29* Crop (cereal) 0.19 ± 0.12 1.56
Crop (fallow) 2.29 ± 0.14 2.16* Crop (fallow) 0.45 ± 0.12 3.77*** Crop (fallow) 0.34 ± 0.12 3.14**
Month (July) − 0.51 ± 0.19 − 2.74** Month (July) − 0.66 ± 0.16 − 3.98*** Month (July) − 0.81 ± 0.15 − 5.23***
Month (November) 0.31 ± 0.23 1.34 Month (November) 0.05 ± 0.19 0.28 Month (November) − 0.15 ± 0.18 − 0.81
NF Crop (cereal) 0.62 ± 0.15 4.23*** Crop (cereal) 0.68 ± 0.11 6.24*** Crop (cereal) 0.50 ± 0.09 5.35***
Crop (fallow) 0.55 ± 0.13 4.09*** Crop (fallow) 0.49 ± 0.10 4.82*** Crop (fallow) 0.34 ± 0.09 3.86***
Month (July) 0.88 ± 0.20 4.46*** Month (July) 0.68 ± 0.11 6.24** Month (July) 0.26 ± 0.14 1.92^
Month (November) 0.35 ± 0.24 1.44 Month (November) 0.40 ± 0.15 0.54 Month (November) − 0.13 ± 0.16 − 0.78
LT Sex (male) 0.72 ± 0.39 1.86^ Sex (male) 0.87 ± 0.41 2.12* Sex (male) 0.90 ± 0.41 2.14*
A. sylvaticus All Month (July) 1.33 ± 0.29 4.54*** Month (July)a 1.01 ± 0.20 5.05*** Month (July) a 0.39 ± 0.16 2.47*
Month (November) − 0.08 ± 0.31 − 0.27 Month (November) − 0.40 ± 0.24 − 1.68^ Month (November) − 0.28 ± 0.21 − 1.33
Sex (male) 0.62 ± 0.21 2.94** Sex (male) 0.50 ± 0.34 3.42*** Sex (male) 0.27 ± 0.11 2.35*
CAG Sex (male) 0.76 ± 0.30 2.54* Sex (male) 0.87 ± 0.52 3.07** Month (July) − 1.03 ± 0.29 − 3.54***
       Month (November) − 0.64 ± 0.39 − 1.66^
       Sex (male) 0.77 ± 0.27 2.85**
NF Month (July) a 0.93 ± 0.31 2.95** Month (July)a 0.52 ± 0.26 2.03* Month (July)a − 0.20 ± 0.23 − 0.87
Month (November) − 0.24 ± 0.36 − 0.64 Month (November) − 0.65 ± 0.33 − 1.99* Month (November) − 0.71 ± 0.30 − 2.35*
LT Month (July) 2.40 ± 0.42 5.64*** Crop (cereal)a,b 0.50 ± 0.22 2.27* Crop (cereal)a,b 0.31 ± 0.19 1.63
Month (November) 0.45 ± 0.47 0.97 Crop (fallow) − 0.16 ± 0.25 − 0.63 Crop (fallow) − 0.24 ± 0.23 − 1.07
Sex (male) 1.02 ± 0.25 4.08*** Month (July) 2.56 ± 0.40 6.44*** Month (July) 1.95 ± 0.38 5.09***
    Month (November) 0.40 ± 0.44 0.90*** Month (November) 0.46 ± 0.45 1.01
    Sex (male) 0.86 ± 0.21 4.20 Sex (male) 0.50 ± 0.18 2.72**
M. spretus All Month (July) a 1.38 ± 0.59 2.33* Month (July)a,b 1.33 ± 0.67 1.99* NA
Month (November) 0.23 ± 0.52 0.43 Month (November) 0.18 ± 0.62 0.29    
Sex (male) 0.98 ± 0.39 2.50* Sex (male) 1.21 ± 0.41 2.93**    
CAG NONE NA NA
NF Month (July) a 2.37 ± 1.13 2.01* Month (July)a 2.27 ± 1.13 2.01* NA
Month (November) 1.43 ± 1.06 1.35 Month (November) 1.81 ± 1.08 1.67^    
    Sex (male) 0.93 ± 0.58 1.61    
LT Month (July)a,b 0.73 ± 1.34 0.55 Month (July)a,b 0.48 ± 1.44 0.33 Sex (male)a 1.07 ± 0.68 1.58
Month (November) − 1.01 ± 1.35 − 0.75 Month (November) − 1.48 ± 1.44 − 1.03    
Sex (male) 1.28 ± 0.68 1.88^ Sex (male) 1.60 ± 0.73 2.20*    
  1. For flea species abbreviation (CAG, LT, NF) see Fig. 1
  2. NA model did not converge, NONE no significant variables, SE standard error
  3. aProvince not included as random effect
  4. bGLM instead of GLMM
  5. ***p < 0.001; **< 0.01; *< 0.05; ^ marginally significant [0.05–0.10]