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Table 3 Risk factors for Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans collected in domiciles and high-risk peridomestic ecotopes, Avia Terai, Chaco

From: Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Triatoma infestans and high levels of human–vector contact across a rural-to-urban gradient in the Argentine Chaco

Predictor Univariate analyses Firth-penalized multiple logistic regression (n = 408)
Odds ratio 95% CI P Odds ratio 95% CI P
Environment
 Urban 1.00 1.00
 Peri-urban 20.81 2.67–2681.96 < 0.01* 16.60 2.07–2150.73 < 0.01*
 Rural 16.10 2.17–2055.80 < 0.01* 13.23 1.73–1699.53 < 0.01*
Stage
 Third-fourth nymph 1.00 1.00
 Fifth-instar nymph 0.67 0.26–1.65 0.38 0.63 0.24–1.65 0.35
 Male 0.64 0.23–1.65 0.36 0.64 0.22–1.79 0.40
 Female 0.45 0.15–1.26 0.13 0.39 0.12–1.12 0.08
Blood meal on
 Dog 1.85 0.77–4.10 0.16 2.80 1.03–7.31 0.04*
 Cat 3.89 1.49–9.29 < 0.01* 4.02 1.46–10.39 < 0.01*
 Human 2.69 1.29–5.54 < 0.01* 3.15 1.27–8.17 0.01*
 Chicken 0.64 0.28–1.35 0.25 1.13 0.43–2.88 0.80
Site bug abundance (triatomines captured per one-person h)
 ≤ 8 1.00
 9–20 1.34 0.44–4.71 0.62
 21–52 0.83 0.27–2.99 0.77
 > 52 0.49 0.15–1.76 0.25
Number of dogs and cats per housea
 ≤ 3 1.00
 4–5 0.76 0.13–3.50 0.73
 6–8 2.21 0.71–7.86 0.17
 > 8 9.49 3.49–31.66 < 0.01*
Number of human residents per houseb
 ≤ 2 1.00
 3 0.57 0.14–1.71 0.34
 4–7 0.17 0.03–0.55 < 0.01*
 > 7 0.60 0.23–1.44 0.26
  1. *Significant at P ≤ 0.05
  2. aThe number of dogs and cats was unknown for 5 examined bugs
  3. bThe number of residents was unknown for 98 examined bugs