Skip to main content

Table 3 Univariable analyses of risk factors for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) based on log-binomial regression models

From: Visceral leishmaniasis outbreaks in Bihar: community-level investigations in the context of elimination of kala-azar as a public health problem

Characteristic Cumulative VL incidence Univariable analyses
n/N (%) Relative risk 95% CI p
Sex     
 Male 165/10689 (1.5) 1.42 1.15, 1.76 0.0009
 Female 107/9960 (1.1)    
Age group (years)     
 < 10 55/5296 (1.0) Referent   
 10–19 79/4751 (1.7) 1.69 1.18, 2.43 0.005
 20–34 52/4827 (1.1) 1.20 0.84, 1.72 0.312
 35–49 44/3059 (1.4) 1.54 1.06, 2.26 0.025
 ≥ 50 42/2696 (1.6) 1.71 1.19, 2.47 0.004
Lives in predominantly SC/ST tolaa    
 Yes 217/5004 (4.3) 12.37 8.79, 17.41 < 0.0001
 No 55/15658 (0.4)    
Unskilled non-agricultural laborer    
 Yes 73/1143 (6.4) 3.95 2.49, 6.26 < 0.0001
 No 199/19519 (1.0)    
Ever sleeps outside     
 Yes 166/7528 (2.2) 2.40 1.83, 3.14 < 0.0001
 No 106/13106 (0.8)    
Sleeps on ground     
 Yes 155/3918 (4.0) 4.43 3.22, 6.10 < 0.0001
 No 117/16686 (0.7)    
Sleeps under netb     
 Ever 145/15764 (0.9) 0.49 0.31, 0.80 0.004
Never 52/2462 (2.1)    
Sleeps under netb     
 Always 71/10963 (0.7) 0.47 0.32, 0.71 0.0003
 Sometimes 74/4801 (1.5) 0.73 0.43, 1.24 0.246
 Never 52/2462 (2.1) Referent   
Defecation site     
 Field 245/13204 (1.9) 5.28 3.28, 8.49 < 0.0001
 Latrine or toilet 27/7451 (0.4)    
Caste     
 Scheduled caste/tribe 219/6310 (3.5) 9.40 6.52, 13.53 < 0.0001
 Other/general 53/1432 (0.4)    
House materialsc     
 Kuccha 174/9560 (1.8) 2.00 1.42, 2.79 < 0.0001
 Semipucca or pucca 98/11086 (0.9)    
Crowding     
 ≥ 3 people per room 186/10675 (1.7) 1.95 1.40, 2.73 < 0.0001
 < 3 people per room 86/9968 (0.9)    
Owns cow     
 Yes 109/11317 (1.0) 0.58 0.41, 0.80 0.0007
 No 163/9336 (1.8)    
Owns goats     
 Yes 132/8436 (1.6) 1.39 1.00, 1.93 0.047
 No 140/12217 (1.2)    
Owns pigs     
 Yes 21/456 (4.6) 3.39 1.88, 6.12 < 0.0001
 No 251/20197 (1.2)    
Migrated for work in past 3 years    
 Yes 96/4472 (2.2) 1.47 1.11, 1.94 0.007
 No 176/16190 (1.1)    
Migrated to work in brick kiln    
 Yes 75/1053 (7.1) 5.06 3.30, 7.76 < 0.0001
 No 197/19609 (1.0)    
  1. Generalized estimating equations used to account for intra-household correlation
  2. aSC/ST, Scheduled caste/scheduled tribe; tola classification presented in detail in Additional file 2: Table S1
  3. bData missing for 2444 respondents, including 75 VL cases
  4. cKuccha, unfired mud brick; pucca, cement or fired brick; semi-pucca, a mixture of the two
\