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Table 1 Frequencies of risk factors and Toxocara spp. seropositivity in children at 2, 3 and 5 years of age showing age-adjusted and multivariable associations of risk factors with overall anti-Toxocara spp. immunoglobulin G seropositivity over the observation period

From: A prospective seroepidemiological study of toxocariasis during early childhood in coastal Ecuador: potential for congenital transmission and risk factors for infection

Variable Category 2 Years (n = 261) 3 Years (n = 268) 5 Years (n = 247) Age-adjusted Multivariable effects
Overall % Positive Overall % Positive Overall % Positive OR (95%CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age Age        1.77 (1.39–2.27) < 0.001 2.06 (1.66–2.56) < 0.001
Maternal seropositivity No 51 (19.5%) 45.1% 53 (19.8%) 54.7% 46 (18.6%) 71.7% 1   1  
Yes 210 (80.5%) 50.0% 215 (80.2%) 68.4% 201 (81.4%) 83.1% 1.69 (1.18–2.42) 0.004 1.46 (0.97–2.13) 0.064
Sex Male 121 (46.4%) 50.4% 127 (47.4%) 72.4% 117 (47.4%) 86.3% 1   1  
Female 140 (53.6%) 47.9% 141 (52.6%) 59.6% 130 (52.6%) 76.2% 0.65 (0.49–0.87) 0.004 0.66 (0.48–0.89) 0.006
Maternal age (years) ≤ 20 67 (25.7%) 50.8% 72 (26.9%) 72.2% 69 (27.9%) 85.5% 1    
21–29 129 (49.4%) 49.6% 132 (49.3%) 65.9% 121 (49.0%) 79.3% 0.89 (0.63–1.26) 0.505   
≥ 30 65 (24.9%) 46.2% 64 (23.9%) 57.8% 57 (23.1%) 79.0% 0.69 (0.46–1.04) 0.073   
Maternal ethnicity Afro-Ecuadorian 81 (31.0%) 55.6% 84 (31.3%) 69.1% 78 (31.6%) 82.1% 1   1  
Non-Afro Ecuadorian 180 (69.0%) 46.1% 194 (68.7%) 64.1% 169 (68.4%) 80.5% 0.73 (0.53–0.99) 0.047 0.65 (0.47–0.91) 0.011
Maternal educational level Illiterate 43 (16.5%) 55.8% 49 (18.3%) 75.5% 44 (17.8%) 86.4% 1   1  
Completed primary 167 (64.0%) 50.3% 167 (35.1%) 63.5% 156 (63.2%) 82.7% 0.61 (0.40–0.90) 0.014 0.61 (0.40–0.93) 0.021
Completed secondary 51 (19.5%) 39.2% 52 (19.4%) 63.5% 47 (19.0%) 70.2% 0.44 (0.27–0.71) 0.001 0.57 (0.34–0.96) 0.034
Socioeconomic statusa Low 90 (34.5%) 56.7% 93 (34.7%) 69.9% 86 (34.8%) 88.4% 1   1  
Medium 91 (35.3%) 50.0% 94 (35.1%) 62.8% 84 (34.0%) 78.6% 0.61 (0.43–0.86) 0.005 0.62 (0.43–0.89) 0.010
High 79 (30.3%) 39.2% 81 (30.2%) 64.2% 77 (31.2%) 75.3% 0.50 (0.35–0.72) < 0.001 0.60 (0.40–0.89) 0.009
Household dogs No 187 (71.7%) 48.7% 186 (70.2%) 62.9% 117(48.6%) 77.8% 1    
Yes 74 (28.4%) 50.0% 79 (29.8%) 70.9% 124(51.5%) 83.9% 1.27 (0.92–1.75) 0.140   
Household cats No 203 (77.8%) 47.3% 193 (72.8%) 61.7% 120(49.8%) 79.2% 1   1  
Yes 58 (22.2%) 55.2% 72 (22.2%) 75.0% 121(50.2%) 82.6% 1.39 (1.00–1.93) 0.051 1.40 (0.99–1.97) 0.055
Household dogs and/or cats No 157 (60.2%) 47.1% 143 (54.0%) 59.4% 78 (32.4%) 78.2% 1    
Yes 104 (39.8%) 51.9% 122 (46.0%) 72.1% 163 (67.6%) 82.2% 1.32 (0.99–1.77) 0.063   
Maternal STH No 139 (53.7%) 44.6% 136 (51.1%) 61.8% 126 (51.4%) 74.6% 1    
Yes 120 (46.3%) 54.2% 130 (48.9%) 69.2% 119 (48.6%) 87.4% 1.58 (1.19–2.12) 0.002   
Childhood STH No 234 (90.7%) 44.9% 212 (80.6%) 61.8% 165 (68.2%) 75.2% 1   1  
Yes 24 (9.3%) 83.3% 51 (19.4%) 78.4% 77 (31.8%) 92.2% 2.55 (1.71, 3.83) < 0.001 2.29 (1.51–3.47) < 0.001
Area of residence Urban 180 (68.9%) 48.3% 183 (68.3%) 66.1% 170 (68.8%) 82.4% 1    
Rural 81 (31.1%) 50.6% 85 (31.7%) 64.7% 77 (31.2%) 77.9% 0.96 (0.70–1.30) 0.777   
Household overcrowdingb No 149 (57.1%) 45.6% 153 (57.1%) 63.4% 140 (56.7%) 45.6% 1    
Yes 81 (42.9%) 53.6% 115 (42.9%) 68.7% 107 (43.3%) 53.6% 1.41 (1.05–1.89) 0.021   
Bathroom type Latrine 170 (65.1%) 51.8% 176 (65.7%) 68.8% 159 (64.4%) 83.0% 1    
Water Closet 91 (34.9%) 44.0% 92 (34.3%) 59.8% 88 (35.6%) 77.3% 0.72 (0.53–0.97) 0.029   
  1. Not shown are covariates Age2 [unadjusted Odds ratio (OR) 0.987, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.979–0.994, P = 0.001; adjusted OR 0.982, 95% CI 0.975–0.989, P < 0.001] and Age3 (unadjusted OR 1.0001, 95% CI 1.00004–1.0002, P < 0.001; adjusted OR 1.00015, 95% CI 1.0001–1.0002, P < 0.001), both of which were included in the multivariable model. ORs and 95% CIs were estimated using generalized estimating equations
  2. P < 0.05 in italics
  3. aSocioeconomic status represents tertiles of z-scores obtained using a factor analysis
  4. bHousehold overcrowding is defined as > 3 people per sleeping room