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Table 1 Samples used in this study with taxon reported in the literature and the taxonomic designation determined here through our ADMIXTURE analyses

From: Global evaluation of taxonomic relationships and admixture within the Culex pipiens complex of mosquitoes

Sample codeReported taxonAncestry assignment (K = 5)CountryCityReference
A_AUS_01australicusAustralian endemicAustraliaSiesta Park[38]
A_AUS_02australicusAustralian endemicAustraliaSouth Guildford[38]
A_AUS_03australicusAustralian endemicAustraliaPoint Douro[38]
G_AUS_01globocoxitusAustralian endemicAustraliaSouth Guildford[38]
G_AUS_02globocoxitusAustralian endemicAustraliaSiesta Park[38]
G_AUS_03globocoxitusAustralian endemicAustraliaPoint Douro[38]
L_CSA_01pallensAdmixedChinaZhu-Shang[39]
L_CSA_02pallensAdmixedChinaNanjing[40]
L_CSA_03pallenspallensChinaDalian[40]
L_CSA_04pallenspallensChinaTongzhou (Beijing)[40]
L_CSA_05pallenspallensChinaChaoyang (Beijing)[40]
L_CSA_06pallenspallensChinaHaidian (Beijing)[40]
L_CSA_07pallenspallensChinaShunyi (Beijing)[40]
L_CSA_08pallenspallensChinaShijingshan (Beijing)[40]
M_EMD_01molestusAdmixedGermany*Hamburg*[41]
M_EMD_02molestuspipiens-molestus (EMD)RussiaAleksin[42]
M_EMD_03molestusAdmixedRussiaMoscow[42]
M_NCA_01molestusAdmixedUSA (CA)Sacremento[42]
M_NCA_02molestuspipiens-molestus (NCA)USA (NY)New YorkThis study
M_NCA_03molestuspipiens-molestus (NCA)USA (IL)ChicagoThis study
M_NCA_04molestuspipiens-molestus (NCA)USA (NY)New York[43]
P_EMD_01pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)GermanyBaden-Wurttemberg[43]
P_EMD_02pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)FranceGanges[39]
P_EMD_03pipiensAdmixedFranceMontpellier[39]
P_EMD_04pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)AlgeriaLac des Oiseaux[39]
P_EMD_05pipiensAdmixedIsraelTel Aviv[39]
P_EMD_06pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)TunisiaGrombalia[39]
P_EMD_07pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)TunisiaEl Kef[44]
P_EMD_08pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)RussiaAleksin[42]
P_EMD_09pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)TunisiaAyed[44]
P_EMD_10pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)TunisiaGrombalia[44]
P_EMD_11pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)TunisiaJedaida[44]
P_EMD_12pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)TunisiaAzib[44]
P_EMD_13pipienspipiens-molestus (EMD)TunisiaUtique[44]
P_NCA_01pipienspipiens-molestus (NCA)USA (CA)San Francisco[45]
P_NCA_02pipiensAdmixedUSA (OH)Columbus[46]
P_NCA_03pipiensAdmixedUSA (NJ)MontclairThis study
P_NCA_04pipienspipiens-molestus (NCA)USA (CA)Bolinas[45]
P_NCA_05pipienspipiens-molestus (NCA)USA (CA)Stinson Beach[45]
P_NCA_06pipienspipiens-molestus (NCA)USA (CA)San Rafael[45]
Q_AUS_01quinquefasciatusAdmixedAustraliaSouth Guildford[38]
Q_CSA_01quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusChinaHaikou[40]
Q_CSA_02quinquefasciatuspallensChinaGuangzhou[40]
Q_CSA_03quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusPhilippinesManila[39]
Q_CSA_04quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusChinaHaikou[40]
Q_CSA_05quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusChinaHaikou[40]
Q_CSA_06quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusChinaHaikou[40]
Q_NCA_01quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusCosta RicaPuerto Viejo de Talamanca[39]
Q_NCA_02quinquefasciatusAdmixedUSA (CA)Merced[47]
Q_NCA_03quinquefasciatusAdmixedUSA (AL)Huntsville[48]
Q_SSA_01quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusBurkina FasoOuagadougou[39]
Q_SSA_02quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusRéunionSaint-Benoît[39]
Q_SSA_03quinquefasciatusquinquefasciatusSouth AfricaJohannesburg[49]
  1. Notes: The country and city the sample originated from is also given. For samples designated as ‘Admixed’, no cluster is represented at greater than 75% when K = 5. Admixed proportions are given in Additional file 1: Table S2. (*sample origin given in personal communication from A. C. Honnen)