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Table 3 Lethal median time (LT50) and hazard ratios (HR) of An. gambiae adults that emerged from unexposed larvae or larvae exposed to two P. flavescens nymphs and/or 6 mg B. bassiana fungus spores

From: Direct and indirect effects of predation and parasitism on the Anopheles gambiae mosquito

Group Larval exposure to Adult exposure to fungus LT50 (95% CI) (days) Hazard ratio
Nymph Fungus HR 95% CI P-value n df
I No No No 23 (20–26) 90 4
II No No Yes 5 (4.7–5.3) 45.8 17.8–117.7 < 0.001 90 1
III Yes No Yes 4 (3.8–4.1) 67.4 26.0–174.2 < 0.001 90 1
IV No Yes Yes 5 (4.7–5.3) 50.9 19.8–130.8 < 0.001 90 1
V Yes Yes Yes 4 (3.7–4.3) 112.0 43.3–289.5 < 0.001 90 1
  1. Notes: Significant P-values (Cox Regression) are shown in bold
  2. Abbreviations: n, sample size; df, degrees of freedom