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Table 4 Summary of canine heartworm prevalence data in Australia from published studies between 1901–2019

From: Pig-hunting dogs are an at-risk population for canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis) infection in eastern Australia

LocationYear(s)Sample sizeSample sourceMethod of detectionPrevalence (%)Reference
Queensland
 Brisbane1959UnknownDogsNecropsy10 (unspecified)[37]
 Brisbane1964–1965761RSPCA dogsNecropsy and/or Mff24 (183/761; 95% CI: 21.1–27.2)[6]
 Brisbane1968114Pound dogsUnknown17 (unspecified)[38]
 Townsville196994Vet clinic dogsMff37 (35/94; 95% CI: 28.1–47.3)[6]
 Brisbane29621 (61/296; 95% CI: 16.4–25.6)
 Brisbane1969–1971238DogsMff15 (37/238; 95% CI: 11.5–20.7)[10]
 Cherbourg16Dogs6 (1/16; 95% CI: < 0.1–30.3)
 Edward River36Dogs85 (31/36; 95% CI: 70.9–94.4)
 Aurukun23Dogs90 (20/23; 95% CI: 67.0–96.3)
 Bamaga48Dogs25 (12/48; 95% CI: 14.8–38.9)
 Hope Vale86Dogs0 (0/86; 95% CI: 0–5.1)
 Mornington Island14Dogs0 (0/14; 95% CI: 0–25.2)
 Kowanyama 84DogsNecropsy88 (78/84; 95% CI: 85.0–97.0)[10]
 Townsville197228Owned dogsMff68 (unspecified)[39]
 Brisbane1972–1976480DogsMff36 (171/480; 95% CI: 31.5–40.0)[10]
 Cherbourg80Dogs8 (6/80; 95% CI: 3.2–15.7)
 Kowanyama45Dogs64 (29/45; 95% CI: 49.8–76.8)
 Edward River23Dogs78 (18/23; 95% CI: 57.7–90.8)
 Bamaga45Dogs71 (32/45; 95% CI: 56.5–82.4)
 Brisbane1979120Pound dogsMff36 (43/120; 95% CI: 27.8–44.7)[7]
 Brisbane1981100Stray puppies (> 8 weeks)Mff1 (1/100; 95% CI: < 0.1–6.0)[40]
 Brisbane198657Pound dogsNecropsy60 (34/57; 95% CI: 46.7–71.4)[41]
 Brisbane198659Pound dogsNecropsy64 (35/59; 95% CI: 46.6–70.9)[42]
 Brisbane1988125Stray dogsNecropsya42 (52/125; 95% CI: 33. 3–50.7)[28]
 Brisbane1989100DogsNecropsy22 (22/100; 95% CI: 14.9–31.1)[12]
 Brisbane1991272Pound dogsNecropsy49 (134/272; 95% CI: 43.4–55.2)[25]
 Brisbane199357Pound dogsNecropsy60 (34/57; 95% CI: 46.7–71.4)[43]
 Townsville2001UnknownPound dogsUnknown15 (unspecified)[44]
200227Wild dogs56 (15/27; 95% CI: 37.3–72.4)
 Yarrabah2008–201251Remote community dogsSNAP (Idexx)2 (1/51; 95% CI: < 0.1–11.3)[45]
 Cairns2007–201323Wild + urban fringe dingoesNecropsy, Mff, SNAP (Idexx)44 (10/23; 95% CI: 25.6–63.2)[19]
 Atherton2007–20135Urban fringe dingoesNecropsy0 (0/5; 95% CI: 0–48.9)[19]
New South Wales
 Murrumbidgee Irrigation Area (Southern NSW)1966UnknownNecropsy dogsNecropsy50 (unspecified)[46]
 Sydney196862DogsMff19 (12/62; 95% CI: 11.3–31.0)[47]
 Sydney1971–1972495Pound dogsNecropsy4 (21/495; 95% CI: 2.8–6.4)[26]
 Sydney197140Vet clinic dogsMff8 (3/40; 95% CI: 1.9–20.6)[26]
 Sydney1972339Pound dogsNecropsy3 (9/339; 95% CI: 1.3–5.0)[48]
 Hunter Valley/Coastal NSW1979–1981331GreyhoundsMff11 (36/331; 95% CI: 7.9–14.7)[9]
 Sydney1981–1983405Vet clinic dogsMff13 (51/405; 95% CI 9.7–16.2)[49]
 Sydney1982–198368Red foxes Vulpes vulpesNecropsy9 (6/68; 95% CI: 3. 8–18.3)[49]
 Sydney1983100Pound dogsNecropsy50 (50/100; 95% CI: 40.4–59.6)[50]
 Sydney1987100Pound dogsNecropsya24 (24/100; 95% CI: 16.6–33.3)[29]
 Sydney1987100Pound dogsNecropsy32 (32/100; 95%CI: 23.7 to 41.7)[51]
 Sydney1992304Pound dogsMffa12 (36/304; 95% CI: 8.7–16.0)[5]
100Necropsya15 (15/100; 95% CI: 9.2–23.4)
 Collarenebri2008–200939Remote community dogsSNAP (Idexx)0 (0/39; 95% CI: 0–10.7)[45]
 Goodooga2008–200919Remote community dogsSNAP (Idexx)21 (4/19; 95% CI: 8.0–43.9)[45]
Victoria
 Melbourne1946174Ownerless dogsNecropsy0 (0/174; 95% CI: 0–2.6)[52]
 North-eastern Victoria1978752Pound dogs (734)Necropsy2 (15/734; 95% CI: 1.2–3.4)[53]
  Greyhounds (18) 28 (5/18; 95% CI: 12.2–51.2) 
 Melbourne1991–1994125Red foxes (Vulpes vulpes)Dirochek® (Symbiotics)6 (8/125; 95% CI: 3.1–12.3)[54]
Northern Territory
 Darwin1963UnknownDogsUnknown70 (unspecified)[6]
 Alice Springs1972–197698Vet clinic dogsMff13 (12/98; 95% CI: 0.1–20.3)[10]
 Docker River + Indulkana73Remote community dogsMff0 (0/73; 95% CI: 0–6.0)[10]
 Katherine198832DingoesNecropsy56 (18/32; 95% CI: 39.3–71.9)[55]
 Ti Tree2007–200948Remote community dogsSNAP (Idexx)2.5 (4/48; 95% CI: 2.8–20.1)[45]
 Tiwi Islands2008–200927Remote community dogsSNAP (Idexx)0 (0/27; 95% CI: 0–14.8)[45]
South Australia
 South Australia1988–19911658DogsMff1 (19/1658; 95% CI: 0.7–1.8)[8]
Western Australia
 Kimberly199358Remote community dogsNecropsy0 (0/58; 95% CI: 0–7.4)[56]
 Bidyadanga200815Remote community dogsSNAP (Idexx)0 (0/15; 95% CI: 0–23.9)[45]
  1. aValidation of DiroChek® Symbiotics Corp. USA supplied by Commonwealth Serum Laboratories, Parkville, Victoria (now owned by Zoetis, NJ)
  2. Abbreviations: 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; Mff, detection of microfilariae