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Table 1 Main features of studies regarding the global seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in wild felids

From: The global serological prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in felids during the last five decades (1967–2017): a systematic review and meta-analysis

CountryPublication yearMethodCut-offPeriod of samplingSample sizePrevalence (%)Wild felid speciesQuality scoreReferences
Southern Africa1999IFAT≥ 1:501984–19966873.50Non-domestic captive and free-ranging felids8Cheadle et al. [25]
Thailand2006LAT≥ 1:642002–200413615.40Captive felids8Thiangtum et al. [26]
UAE2008MAT≥ 1:252001–20083686.11Gordon’s wild, captive-born and wild-caught felids8Pas & Dubey [27]
Qatar2010MAT≥ 1:2520092777.78Arabian sand cat, African wild cat, cheetah, king cheetah8Dubey et al. [28]
UAE2010MAT≥ 1:2520095390.60Gordon’s wild cat, Arabian leopard, cheetah, caracal, African caracal8Dubey et al. [28]
France2013MAT≥ 1:481996–200611267.00Wild cats10Afonso et al. [29]
USA (Alaska)2001MAT≥ 1:25 25515.30Lynx8Zarnke et al. [30]
Canada2001MAT≥ 1:251997–199811644.00Lynx, bobcats10Labelle et al. [31]
USA2003IFAT≥ 1:50 10144.55Captive and free-ranging non-domestic felids6Spencer et al. [32]
Midwestern USA2008MAT≥ 1:252003–200510738.30Cheetah, lynx, clouded leopard, African lion, jaguar, Amur leopard, Persian leopard, Amur tiger, fishing and Pallasʼs cats, puma, Texas puma, snow leopard10De Camps et al. [33]
USA (Mississippi)2017MAT≥ 1:25201435100Bobcats10Verma et al. [34]
America2004LAT≥ 1:641984–199949625.80Pumas and bobcats10Kikuchi et al. [35]
Brazil2001MAT≥ 1:201996–20003764.90European lynx, jungle cat, serval10Silva et al. [36]
Brazil2001MAT≥ 1:201995–200186554.60Captive Neotropical felids10Silva et al. [37]
Brazil2010IFAT≥ 1:40 16163.40Wild felids in Brazilian zoos6Andre et al. [38]
Brazil2010MAT≥ 1:16 5766.67Neotropical felids (leopardus and puma)8Ullmann et al. [39]
Argentina2012ELISA≥ 1:482000–20084047.50Geoffroy’s cats9Uhart et al. [40]
Brazil2015MAT≥ 1:252000–200931100Free-ranging jaguars8Furtado et al. [41]
  1. Abbreviations: IFAT, indirect fluorescent antibody test; LAT, latex agglutination test; MAT, modified agglutination test; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay