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Fig. 4 | Parasites & Vectors

Fig. 4

From: Uptake and fecal excretion of Coxiella burnetii by Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor marginatus ticks

Fig. 4

Transstadial transmission of C. burnetii from nymphs to adult I. ricinus. Nymphs were fed on blood containing 106 GE/ml and were allowed to transform into adults. a Of the PCR C. burnetii-positive adult ticks, one half of a bisected tick was used for cultivation with L-929 cells. Vacuoles typical for Coxiella infections appeared 24 days after inoculation. b Material from the same tick was used for cultivation in cell-free ACCM-2 medium, and C. burnetii DNA was detected by PCR. Negative controls tested in parallel showed no Cq-value in the PCR (not shown). c Eight females molted from previously infected nymphs were divided into two infection groups, each consisting of 4 females and 3 Coxiella-negative males, and fed again on sterile blood. Feces were removed every two days and tested by quantitative PCR. Infection group 1 excreted C. burnetii DNA with their feces, whereas in feces of infection group 2 and in the negative control group no C. burnetii DNA was detected (here shown as 100). Samples in b and c were analyzed in three independent measurements in duplicates, the mean values and standard deviations are indicated

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