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Table 1 Bulls analyzed in this study

From: Vascular wall injury and inflammation are key pathogenic mechanisms responsible for early testicular degeneration during acute besnoitiosis in bulls

BullAgeBreedGeographical originClinical signs and macroscopic lesionsSerology
RIPC %+/−RIPC %+/−WBAvidity
124 monthsCharolaisMadridFever (41 °C), orchitis, hydrocele, edema in posterior limb, congestive scleral conjunctiva119.2+80++8
2AdultaCharolaisMadridRespiratory problems, edema in the area of the scapula, ascitesnananananana
3AdultLimousinCáceresOrchitis, hydrocele, edema in declining areas and scleral conjunctivanananananana
4AdultUnknownMadridOrchitis, hydrocele, petechiae and hemorrhages in testes137.5+1.0na
5AdultUnknownLa RiojaHydrocele, congestion, adhesions127.2+2.7na
6132 monthsCharolaisMadridFever (41 °C), orchitis, hydrocele, petechiae and hemorrhages in testes167+4.9na
735 monthsCharolaisMadridFever (40 °C), orchitis, hydrocele, petechiae74.4+6.8na
  1. aBull in reproductive age more than 15 months
  2. Abbreviations: +. positive animal; –, negative animal; ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; WB, western blot; na, not available; RIPC, relative index percent
  3. Notes: Bulls 2, 3 and 5 died in farm