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Table 2 Contact of kennelled dogs to Leishmania parasites at the beginning and end of sand fly season—prevalence, cumulative incidence and relative risk factors by diagnostic test

From: Monitoring Leishmania infection and exposure to Phlebotomus perniciosus using minimal and non-invasive canine samples

Variable/categoryDiagnostic test
ELISAIFATPeripheral blood PCRConjunctival swab PCR
P1P2IRR (95% CI)P1P2IRR (95% CI)P1P2IRR (95% CI)P1P2IRR (95% CI)
Sex, n (%)P = 0.150P = 0.091P = 0.393 P = 0.200P = 0.176P = 1.000 P = 0.668P = 0.342P = 0.184  P = 0.473P = 0.867 
 Femaleh12 (9.8)13 (10.6)2 (3.0) 6 (4.9)9 (7.3)1 (1.5) 52 (42.3)30 (24.4)19 (28.8) 0 (0)45 (36.6)21 (31.8) 
 Male14 (16.5)16 (18.8)3 (6.7)2.20 (0.38–12.64)8 (9.4)11 (12.9)1 (2.2)1.47 (0.09–22.85)33 (38.8)16 (18.8)8 (17.8)0.62 (0.30–1.29)0 (0)27 (31.8)15 (33.3)1.05 (0.61–1.8)
Age group, n (%)aP = 0.271P = 0.709P = 0.6260.21 (0.02–2.97)P = 0.769P = 0.813P = 0.474 P = 0.137P = 1.000P = 0.841  P = 0.831P = 1.000 
 < 1 yearh0 (0)0 (0)0 (0) 0 (0)0 (0)0 (0) 0 (0)0 (0)0 (0) 0 (0)0 (0)0 (0) 
 1–7 years13 (10.0)17 (13.1)3 (3.9)Infinity9 (6.9)13 (10.0)1 (1.3)Infinity47 (36.2)26 (20.0)17 (22.1)Infinity0 (0)44 (33.8)23 (29.9)Infinity
 > 7 years11 (17.2)10 (15.6)2 (7.1)Infinity3 (4.7)5 (7.8)1 (3.6)Infinity31 (48.4)13 (20.3)7 (25.0)Infinity0 (0)20 (31.3)8 (28.6)Infinity
Breed, n (%)P = 0.018*P = 0.318P = 0.112 P = 0.089P = 0.141P = 0.202 P = 0.945P = 0.146P = 0.387  P = 0.318P = 0.451 
 Mongrelh15 (9.4)d19 (11.9)3 (3.4) 8 (5.0)12 (7.5)1 (1.1) 65 (40.9)31 (19.5)19 (21.8) 0 (0)51 (32.1)26 (29.9) 
 Crossed3 (14.3)4 (19.0)2 (18.2)5.27 (0.99–28.17)2 (9.5)3 (14.3)1 (9.1)7.91 (0.53–117.7)8 (38.1)5 (23.8)3 (27.3)1.25 (0.44–3.55)0 (0)10 (47.6)4 (36.4)1.22 (0.52–2.83)
 Pure8 (28.6)d6 (21.4)0 (0)04 (14.3)5 (17.9)0 (0)012 (42.9)10 (35.7)5 (38.5)1.76 (0.80–3.90)0 (0)11 (39.3)6 (46.2)2.01 (0.62–6.57)
Coat length, n (%)bP = 0.474P = 0.804P = 0.328 P = 0.765P = 0.413P = 0.105 P = 0.827P = 0.508P = 0.307  P = 0.975P = 0.500 
 Shorth15 (11.0)18 (13.2)2 (2.7) 8 (5.9)11 (8.1)0 (0) 55 (40.4)28 (20.6)16 (21.6) 0 (0)47 (34.6)22 (29.7) 
 Medium or long10 (14.5)10 (14.5)3 (8.3)3.08 (0.54–17.64)5 (7.2)8 (11.6)2 (5.6)Infinity29 (42.0)17 (24.6)11 (30.6)1.41 (0.73–2.72)0 (0)24 (34.8)13 (36.1)1.22 (0.70–2.12)
Coat colour, n (%)cP = 0.472P = 0.861P = 0.596 P = 0.636P = 0.387P = 0.305 P = 0.638P = 0.015*P = 0.195  P = 0.067P = 0.035* 
 Brighth4 (8.0)7 (14.0)2 (6.7) 4 (8.0)4 (8.0)1 (3.3) 17 (34.0)15 (30.0)e9 (30.0) 0 (0)23 (46.0)15 (50.0) 
 Mix12 (12.6)12 (12.6)1 (2.0)0.31 (0.03–3.23)5 (5.3)7 (7.4)0 (0)040 (42.1)13 (13.7)e,f8 (16.3)0.54 (0.24–1.26)0 (0)33 (34.7)15 (30.6)g0.61 (0.35–1.06)
 Dark9 (15.8)9 (15.8)2 (6.5)0.97 (0.15–6.43)5 (8.8)8 (14.0)1 (3.2)0.97 (0.06–14.78)23 (40.4)18 (31.6)f10 (32.3)1.07 (0.51–2.27)0 (0)14 (24.6)6 (19.4)g0.39 (0.17–0.86)
Clinical signsP = 0.035*P = 0.014*P = 0.041* P = 0.199P = 0.126P = 1.000 P = 0.236P = 1.000P = 0.677  P = 0.402P = 1.000 
 Absenth15 (9.7)22 (11.8)3 (2.9) 8 (5.2)16 (8.6)2 (1.9) 67 (43.2)42 (22.5)26 (25.2) 0 (0)63 (33.7)34 (33.0) 
 Present11 (20.8)7 (33.3)2 (25.0)8.58 (1.67–44.17)6 (11.3)4 (19.0)0 (0)018 (34.0)4 (19.0)1 (12.5)0.50 (0.08–3.19)0 (0)9 (42.9)2 (25.0)0.76 (0.22–2.6)
InsecticidesP = 0.701P = 0.068P = 0.257 P = 0.605P = 0.068P = 0.359 P = 0.501P = 0.021*P = 0.010*  P = 0.852P = 0.945 
 Noh23 (12.2)20 (11.8)3 (3.4) 12 (6.4)13 (7.7)1 (1.1) 78 (41.5)32 (18.9)17 (19.1) 0 (0)58 (34.3)29 (32.6) 
 Yes1 (5.6)9 (23.1)2 (9.1)2.7 (0.48–15.17)0 (0.0)7 (17.9)1 (4.5)4.04 (0.26–62.17)6 (33.3)14 (35.9)10 (45.5)2.38 (1.27–4.45)0 (0)14 (35.9)7 (31.8)0.98 (0.49–1.93)
Ac anti-rSP03B, n (%)P = 0.705P = 1.000P = 0.548 P = 0.453P = 1.000P = 0.269 P = 0.213P = 0.038*P = 0.063  P = 0.566P = 0.206 
 Noh9 (11.4)4 (13.3)1 (6.3) 4 (5.1)3 (10.0)1 (6.3) 28 (35.4)11 (36.7)7 (43.8) 0 (0)9 (30.0)3 (18.8) 
 Yes17 (13.2)25 (14.0)4 (4.2)0.67 (0.08–5.65)10 (7.8)17 (9.6)1 (1.1)0.17 (0.01–2.56)57 (44.2)35 (19.7)20 (21.1)0.48 (0.24–0.95)0 (0)63 (35.4)33 (34.7)1.85 (0.64–5.33)
Ac anti-rSP03B + rSP01, n (%)P = 0.265P = 0.288P = 0.282 P = 0.335P = 0.382P = 1.000 P = 0.733P = 0.556P = 0.358  P = 0.051P = 0.680 
 Noh2 (5.9)4 (22.2)1 (14.3) 1 (2.9)1 (5.6)0 (0) 13 (38.2)5 (27.8)3 (42.9) 0 (0)10 (55.6)3 (42.9) 
 Yes24 (13.8)25 (13.2)4 (3.8)0.27 (0.04–2.10)13 (7.5)19 (10.0)2 (1.9)Infinity72 (41.4)41 (21.6)24 (23.1)0.54 (0.21–1.36)0 (0)62 (32.6)33 (31.7)0.74 (0.30–1.82)
Ac anti-SGH, n (%)P = 0.207P = 1.000P = 0.442 P = 1.000P = 0.479P = 1.000 P = 0.067P = 0.256P = 0.352  P = 0.378P = 0.521 
 Noh4 (7.5)3 (11.5)1 (8.3) 3 (5.7)1 (3.8)0 (0) 16 (30.2)8 (30.8)4 (33.3) 0 (0)11 (42.3)5 (41.7) 
 Yes22 (14.2)26 (14.3)4 (4.0)0.48 (0.06–3.99)11 (7.1)19 (10.4)2 (2.0)Infinity69 (44.5)38 (20.9)23 (23.2)0.7 (0.29–1.68)0 (0)61 (33.5)31 (31.3)0.75 (0.36–1.56)
Total, n (%)26 (12.5)29 (13.9)5 (4.5) 14 (6.7)20 (9.6)2 (1.8) 85 (40.9)46 (22.1)27 (24.3) 0 (0)72 (34.6)36 (32.4) 
  1. aP1 and P2 (n = 195); I (n = 106)
  2. bP1 and P2 (n = 205); I (n = 110)
  3. cP1 and P2 (n = 202); I (n = 110)
  4. dP = 0.019
  5. eP = 0.018
  6. fP = 0.008
  7. gP = 0.012
  8. hReference category
  9. *Significant statistical association (α ≤ 0.05)
  10. Abbreviations: ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; IFAT, immunofluorescence antibody test; PCR, polymerase chain reaction; P1, prevalence of Leishmania infection at the beginning of the sand fly season (n = 208); P2, prevalence of Leishmania infection at the end of the sand fly season (n = 208); I, cumulative incidence (n = 111); RR, relative risk; 95% CI, 95% confidence interval; rSP03B, 43 KDa yellow-related protein; rSP03B + rSP01, rSP03B and 35.5 kDa apyrase; SGH, salivary gland homogenate