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Table 1 List of studied localities and their characteristics

From: Dynamic of resistance alleles of two major insecticide targets in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) populations from Benin, West Africa

LocalityEnvironmentAgricultural practiceAgroclimatic zoneInsecticide pressure originReference
CotonouUrbanVegetablesGuineanAgriculture (OCs/OPs/PYRs)[6]
Grand-PopoUrbanVegetablesGuineanAgriculture (OCs/OPs/PYRs)Present study
BohiconUrbanCereals/CottonSoudano-GuineanAgriculture (OCs/OPs/PYRs)[6]
AbomeyUrbanCereals/CottonSoudano-GuineanAgriculture (OCs/OPs/PYRs)[6]
GlazoueUrbanCerealsSoudano-GuineanAgriculture (OCs/OPs/PYRs)[6]
KandiRuralCottonSoudanianAgriculture (OCs/OPs/PYRs)[6]
BembèrèkèRuralCottonSoudanianAgriculture (OCs/OPs/PYRs)[6]
Tori-BossitoRuralCereals/FruitsGuineanMVCI (CXs/PYRs)[6]
AvrankouRuralCerealsGuineanMVCI (CXs/PYRs)Present study
DjougouUrbanCottonSoudanianMVCI (CXs/PYRs)[6]
NatitingouUrbanCottonSoudanianMVCI (OPs/CXs/PYRs)[6]
ComéRuralCerealsGuineanAverage[11]
CovèRuralCerealsSoudano-GuineanAveragePresent study
  1. The collection period was from August to September in 2013, 2014 and 2015
  2. Notes: OCs, PYRs, OPs and CXs correspond to organochlorines, pyrethroids, organophosphates and carbamates insecticides, respectively. MVCI corresponds to areas with reinforced malaria vector control interventions. Agriculture corresponds to areas where exposure to insecticides results mostly from their uses for crop cultures. Average corresponds to areas with limited insecticide uses for domestic agriculture and vector control (low turnover of impregnated bednets, see text)