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Table 2 Frequencies of L1014F-VGSC and G119S-ace-1 mutations over ten years (2006–2015) in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) populations of Benin

From: Dynamic of resistance alleles of two major insecticide targets in Anopheles gambiae (s.l.) populations from Benin, West Africa

SpeciesLocalityYearInsecticide resistance allelesReference
G119S-ace-1P-valueL1014F-VGSCP-value
SSRSRRfSSRSRRf
An. arabiensisBembèrèkè201310000ns7030.30nsPresent study
20143900039000Present study
20151500014100.03Present study
Bohicon200666000ns66000ns[6]
20081420.57[29]
20141500015000Present study
Djougou20141000ns1000nsPresent study
201530000031Present study
Glazoué200757000ns57000***[6]
20133600036000Present study
20143900039000Present study
20155800020560.97Present study
Kandi200732000ns32000ns[6]
20131600013030.19Present study
20143800036020.05Present study
201510001000Present study
An. coluzziiAbomey20063000ns2100.17ns[6]
201360000061Present study
201450300.0300531Present study
20152900000291Present study
Avrankou201335200ns58240.76nsPresent study
201459100313440.84Present study
2015600001020300.67Present study
Bembèrèkè2015130003730.50Present study
Bohicon20062000ns0021***(ns)[6]
20085110.21[29]
201010110.92[29]
20134400013400.94Present study
20142800013240.91Present study
20152500001240.98Present study
Comè200930000ns111180.78*(ns)[30]
20135600003530.97Present study
201451100.01212370.84Present study
20156000007530.94Present study
Cotonou2006ns93140670.46***[31]
200792000313790.90[6]
200835310.86[29]
200972000329970.86[29, 30]
201009370.90[29]
20136000003570.98Present study
201433300.0401350.99Present study
201559000827240.64Present study
Covè201358000ns011470.91nsPresent study
201459000112460.88Present study
20155900012560.97Present study
Djougou201510001000Present study
Glazoué20131000ns0011nsPresent study
201440001030.75Present study
201510001000Present study
Grand-Popo201356700.06ns03600.98nsPresent study
201460000121380.81Present study
201557100.011119280.65Present study
Kandi201420001100.25Present study
Tori Bossito200741000ns33800.10***[32]
2008620003316130.34[32]
200905250.92[29]
2010014160.77[29]
20136000002580.98Present study
20143600016290.89Present study
201558000524290.71Present study
An. gambiae (s.s.)Abomey2006521600.12***28580.91ns[6]
201347200.0200491Present study
201440000041Present study
201530100.0200311Present study
Avrankou201322100.0235151Present study
Bembèrèkè200757500.04* (ns)515420.80ns[6]
20134700001460.99Present study
20142100040170.81Present study
2015190006850.47Present study
Bohicon20062100.17ns0130.88ns[6]
200836160.76[29]
200904410.96[29]
201007260.89[29]
20131500000151Present study
20141400001130.96Present study
20153500002330.97Present study
Comè201340000041.00Present study
Covè20141000ns0011.00nsPresent study
201510000011.00Present study
Djougou200739300.04ns110310.86ns[6]
20136000003570.98Present study
20145500012520.96Present study
201551400.0410540.98Present study
Glazoué20075000ns4100.10ns[6]
20132300000231Present study
201414100.0301140.97Present study
20150100.500011Present study
Kandi200730000ns78150.63***[6]
200990300.0280104900.52[11]
20134400030410.93Present study
20142000040160.80Present study
201558000130450.78Present study
Natitingou200747100.01ns113470.88***[6]
2012331100.13[33]
20136000000601Present study
201446300.0300491Present study
2015461200.1000581Present study
Tori Bossito2007144200.01ns7462100.28***[32]
2008710004332320.45[29, 32]
200905200.90[29]
20101550.68[29]
20142000000201Present study
An. coluzii × An. gambiae (s.s.) hybridsAbomey201350000051Present study
Bohicon201310000011Present study
Bembèrèkè201510000100.5Present study
Djougou201510000011Present study
Tori Bossito201440000041Present study
  1. Notes: For each species of the complex, the year of sampling and the number of individuals per genotype are indicated for both resistance mutations, as well as the source of the data. For each resistance mutation, the frequency of the resistant allele is calculated for each sample (f) and the P-value indicates whether there is a significant interannual variation (multinomial log-linear model, Year effect, see “Methods”): ns, P > 0.05, *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001 (when the Bonferroni correction suggests that the significant P-value is probably a false positive, ns is indicated within brackets). “–” is indicated when no data were available