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Table 1 Countries with reported T. vivax infection in diverse host species tested with diverse methods

From: Global distribution, host range and prevalence of Trypanosoma vivax: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Country Host species studied Test method Number of tests (total = 232,627) Number of positives (total =24,420) References
Argentina Cattle Reverse line blot 186 16 [217]
Benin Buffoon kob, cattle, hartebeest, roan antelope, warthog, waterbuck, Thin and thick blood smears 312 205 [10, 99]
Bolivia Cattle Thin blood smear, Giemsa stained blood smear, PCR 1520 311 [123, 177, 243]
Botswana Cape buffalo, cattle, donkey, goat, greater kudu, impala, lechwe, reedbuck, sable antelope, tsessebe MHCT/Woo test, Giemsa stained thick and thin blood smear, IFAT 3040 399 [100, 239]
Brazil Cattle, donkey, goat, horse, pampas deer, sheep, domestic buffalo MHCT/Woo test, PCR, IFAT, thin and thick blood smear, buffy coat smear, Ab-ELISA, PCR 11468 4079 [4, 51, 58,59,60,61,62, 71, 72, 81, 83,84,85, 91, 94, 112, 116, 125,126,127, 154, 156, 212, 219, 220, 226, 228, 242, 244, 250, 274, 277]
Burkina Faso Cattle Buffy coat smear, Ag-ELISA, Ab-ELISA, PCR 11095 1095 [65, 90, 151, 216, 241, 251,252,253]
Cameroon African civet, black legged mangoose, black striped duiker, blue duiker, bosman potto, brush tailed porcupine, cattle, cloaked mangabey, crested mangabey, crocodile, dark mangoose, de Brazza’s monkey, dog, dwarf guenon, giant forest squirrel, giant rat, goat, golden cat, golden potto, greater cane rat, greater white-nosed monkey, guereza white colobus, long-tailed pangolin, mandrill, mona monkey, monitor lizard, moustached monkey, ogilby’s duiker, Peter’s duiker,pig, red-legged sun squirrel, royal antelope, sheep, sitatunga, small-spotted genet, tree dassie, tree pangolin, two-spotted palm civet, water chevrotain, white-eyelid mangabey, yellow-backed duiker Buffy coat smear, PCR 4176 406 [7, 13, 14, 170, 202, 245] [7, 13, 14, 170, 202, 245]
Chad Cattle Buffy coat smear, Ab-ELISA 1866 435 [93]
Colombia Cattle, goat, sheep Blood smear, PCR, IFAT 6712 1699 [135, 136, 215, 221, 232, 274]
Costa Rica Cattle Blood smear, IFAT 642 53 [210, 274]
Côte d’Ivoire Cattle, goat, pig, sheep MHCT/Woo test, PCR 2185 195 [45, 148, 197]
Democratic Republic of the Congo Cattle, dog, goat, pig, sheep MHCT/Woo test, ELISA 685 41 [167, 168]
Ecuador Cattle IFAT 310 70 [274]
El Salvador Cattle IFAT 100 15 [274]
Equatorial Guinea Goat, sheep PCR 559 10 [79]
Ethiopia Cattle, donkey, dromedary camel, goat, horse, mule, sheep Giemsa stained blood smear, blood smear, buffy coat smear, MHCT/Woo test, thin and thick blood smear, Ab-ELISA, PCR 55196 2600 [6, 43, 44, 48, 64, 69, 70, 74,75,76, 86, 87, 92, 98, 101, 103, 107, 113,114,115, 122, 142, 144, 145, 152, 178,179,180,181,182, 184, 187, 191, 229, 230, 240, 248, 257, 258, 262, 264,265,266]
French Guiana Cattle Ag-ELISA 3000 870 [95]
Gabon Cattle Buffy coat smear, Ag-ELISA, PCR 442 26 [80, 157, 268]
Gambia Cattle, donkey, goat, horse, sheep Buffy coat smear, Giemsa stained blood smear, Ab-ELISA, PCR 5745 1329 [8, 96, 102, 173, 213, 218]
Ghana Cattle, goat, pig, sheep Buffy coat smear, PCR, Ag-latex agglutination test 1786 231 [46, 117, 143, 198]
Guyana Goat, sheep MHCT/Woo test, IFAT 467 15 [55, 272]
Kenya Black rhinoceros, cattle, dromedary camel, goat, horse, pig, sheep Thin and thick blood smear, Giemsa stained blood smear, buffy coat smear, MHCT/Woo test, Ag-ELISA, PCR 5156 845 [66, 146, 172, 174, 183, 185, 196, 200, 201, 208, 209, 227, 261, 267, 275]
Liberia Cattle Giemsa stained blood smear, IFAT, Ab-ELISA 700 327 [155, 176]
Malawi Cattle Giemsa stained blood smear 9309 9 [271]
Mali Cattle Buffy coat smear 796 34 [192]
Martinique Cattle IFAT 227 0 [50]
Mozambique Cattle Blood smear 16895 1245 [254]
Namibia Cattle Giemsa stained thick and thin blood smear, MHCT 1481 15 [270]
Nigeria Cattle, dog, goat, horse, sheep Blood smear, Giemsa stained blood smear, MHCT/buffy coat smear, MHCT/Woo test, Ag-ELISA, PCR 20080 2926 [52, 53, 63, 88, 89, 104,105,106, 108,109,110, 134, 137,138,139,140, 153, 166, 206, 207, 211, 214, 234,235,236,237, 259, 269, 276]
Pakistan Donkey, horse, mule PCR 300 0 [231]
Paraguay Cattle IFAT 15 6 [274]
Peru Cattle Blood smear, MHCT/Woo test, Giemsa stained blood smear, IFAT, PCR 985 119 [171, 177, 222, 274]
Rwanda Cattle Blood smear 3630 36 [12]
Senegal Cattle, dog, donkey, goat, horse, sheep Buffy coat smear, blood smears, Ab-ELISA, PCR 4890 365 [111, 128, 129, 225, 238]
South Africa Cattle PCR 143 30 [169]
Sudan Cattle, donkey, dromedary camel, horse Blood smear, Buffy coat smear, PCR 4426 366 [132, 186, 223, 233]
Tanzania African civet, bohor reedbuck, cattle, Coke’s hartebeest, giraffe, Grant’s gazelle, hunting dog, impala, Kirk’s dikdik, klipspringer, Lichtenstein’s hartebeest, oribi, oryx, ostrich, pig, roan antelope, southern reedbuck, steinbuck, Thomson’s gazelle, tsessebe, warthog, wildebeest, zebra Blood smear, thin and thick blood smear, Giemsa stained blood smear, buffy coat smear, PCR, PCR-LAMP 9974 431 [5, 56, 78, 130, 131, 133, 141, 147, 149, 188, 194, 203, 247, 256]
Togo Cattle PCR-RFLP 354 27 [263]
Uganda Cattle, dog, donkey, goat, pig, sheep Giemsa stained blood smear, MHCT/Woo test, thick and thin blood smear, buffy coat smear, Ab-ELISA, PCR 28510 1932 [47, 49, 54, 57, 67, 68, 77, 82, 158,159,160,161,162,163,164,165, 189, 190, 195, 205, 273]
Venezuela Cattle, horse, sheep, domestic buffalo MHCT/Woo test, stained blood smear, IFAT, Ab-ELISA, PCR 6328 1373 [73, 118,119,120,121, 124, 224, 255, 260]
Zambia African civet, baboon, bat, black rhinoceros, bushbuck, cane rat, Cape buffalo, cattle, crocodile, eland, elephant, genet, giraffe, goat, greater kudu, grey duiker, grysbok, hare, hartebeest, hippopotamus, hunting dog, hyena, impala, jackal, leopard, lion, mongoose, pig, porcupine, puku, reedbuck, roan antelope, serval, vervet monkey, warthog, waterbuck, wild cat, wildebeest, zebra PCR, buffy coat smear 6936 234 [9, 97, 150, 175, 193, 199, 204, 246]
  1. Ab-Elisa antibody enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Ag-Elisa antigen enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Mhct micro-hematocrit centrifugation technique, Ifat immunofluorescence antibody test, Pcr polymerase chain reaction, Pcr-Lamp polymerase chain reaction-loop mediated isothermal amplification, Pcr-Rflp polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism