Distribution of Bartonella bacteria inside wingless deer keds (Lipoptena fortisetosa). a, b, c Sagittal sections of three different deer keds, respectively. a-1, b-1, c-1 Immunostained sagittal sections of the keds using anti-sika deer strains mouse sera and Alexa Fluor 488 conjugated goat anti-mouse IgG antibodies. a-2, b-2, c-2 Sagittal sections of the keds treated with normal mouse serum as a negative control. Actin fibers in the deer keds were counterstained with Alexa Fluor 568 phalloidin in order to aid determination of Bartonella distribution. Scale bar: 100 µm.