Phylogenetic tree of Bartonella strains from deer ked and Japanese sika deer and other ruminants. The tree was produced using the maximum-likelihood method based on the General Time Reversible model. A discrete gamma distribution was used to model evolutionary rate differences among sites (5 categories [G, parameter = 0.4518]). Four representative strains (D8-Ked2.1, D8-Ked2.2, D13-Ked2.1 and D93-Ked3.1) from deer keds, 11 representative strains (Honshu-8.1, -9.1, -9.3, -11.1, -12.1, -16.1, -18.2, -18.5, -53.5, -58.5 and Yezo-25.1) from Japanese sika deer, the ruminant-associated Bartonella species (B. bovis 91-4T, B. capreoli IBS193T, B. capreoli B28980, B. chomelii A828T, B. schoenbuchensis R1T and candidatus B. melophagi K-2C) and several other known Bartonella species were included in the tree. The tree was rooted using Brucella melitensis strain 16MT as an outgroup. Bootstrap values with > 70% confidence are indicated at the tree nodes. Branch lengths are measured as the number of substitutions per site.