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Table 5 Mutations in codon 198 in isotype 1 β-tubulin gene of Haemonchus spp. collected from cattle in five different study areas in South Darfur State, Sudan, detected by Sanger sequencing

From: Susceptible trichostrongyloid species mask presence of benzimidazole-resistant Haemonchus contortus in cattle

Study area Source of samples Type of samplesa Sample collection dayb Haemonchus spp. No.c No. of samples with each variant
       GAA TTA GTA TAA
Beleil Trial L3 0 H. placei 0 0 0 0 0
     H. contortus 0 0 0 0 0
     Mixed infectionsd 1 1 0 0 0
    14 e
Kass Trial L3 0 H. placei 4 4 0 0 0
     H. contortus 0 0 0 0 0
     Mixed infectionsd 1 0 1 0 0
    14 H. contortus 1 0 1 0 0
Nyala Trial L3 0 H. placei 1 1 0 0 0
     H. contortus 0 0 0 0 0
     Mixed infectionsd 5 2 1 2 0
    14 H. contortus 2 0 2 0 0
  Abattoir Adult n.a. H. placei 2 2 0 0 0
     Mixed infectionsd 1 1 0 0 0
Rehed Al-Birdi Trial L3 0 H. placei 0 0 0 0 0
     H. contortus 6 6 0 0 0
     Mixed infectionsd 4 4 0 0 0
    14 H. contortus 4 0 4 0 0
  Abattoir Adult n.a. H. placei 3 3 0 0 0
     Mixed infectionsd 1 1 0 0 0
Tulus Trial L3 0 H. placei 0 0 0 0 0
     H. contortus 2 1 0 0 1
     Mixed infectionsd 3 2 1 0 0
    14 H. contortus 6 0 6 0 0
  Abattoir Adult n.a. H. placei 7 7 0 0 0
     Mixed infectionsd 4 4 0 0 0
Total (and %) H. placei 17 17 (100) 0 (0) 0 (0) 0 (0)
  H. contortus 21 7 (33) 13 (62) 0 (0) 1 (5)
  Mixed infectionsd 20 15 (75) 3 (15) 2 (10) 0 (0)
  All the samples 58 39 (67) 16 (28) 2 (4) 1 (2)
  1. n.a., samples collected from cattle abomasa at abattoirs with unknown history of anthelmintic treatments
  2. aPools of third-stage larvae (L3) of at least ⁓ 1000 gastrointestinal nematode L3/sample or of adult male Haemonchus spp. isolated from cattle abomasa at abattoirs (16–100 worm/sample)
  3. bFaecal samples were collected before treatment (day 0) and on day 14 after albendazole treatment at dose of 7.5 mg/kg body weight
  4. cNumber of pools tested
  5. dMixed infections with Haemonchus placei/Haemonchus contortus that identified in pools of L3 or adults based on chromatograms of the isotype 1 β-tubulin gene as described by Fávero et al. (submitted)
  6. eNo nematode eggs detected on day 14 of albendazole treatment (FECR: 99.9%). Therefore, faecal cultures were not prepared