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Table 1 Parameter estimates for the infestation prevalence on bank voles indicating the probability to be infested with at least one tick, using a binomial distribution model

From: High-elevational occurrence of two tick species, Ixodes ricinus and I. trianguliceps, at their northern distribution range

Parameters Estimate Standard error Z value P value
Ixodes ricinus larvae
 Intercept 1.7429 0.5243 3.32 0.001
 Study area Lærdal 4.2441 0.5824 7.29 < 0.001
 Altitude − 0.0044 0.0011 − 3.95 < 0.001
 Sex female − 0.6724 0.1719 − 3.91 < 0.001
 Year 2018 − 0.7789 0.3780 − 2.06 0.039
 Season summer − 0.6515 0.5701 − 1.14 0.253
 Season autumn − 1.6039 0.6048 − 2.65 0.008
 Altitude: season summer 0.0012 0.0012 1.03 0.305
 Altitude: season autumn − 0.0023 0.0014 − 1.59 0.112
 Study area Lærdal: altitude − 0.0029 0.0009 − 3.39 0.001
 Study area Lærdal: season summer − 0.7681 0.4656 − 1.65 0.099
 Study area Lærdal: season autumn − 1.5402 0.5646 − 2.73 0.006
 Year 2018: season summer − 0.6665 0.4740 − 1.41 0.160
 Year 2018: season autumn 1.4512 0.4858 2.99 0.003
Ixodes trianguliceps larvae
 Intercept − 1.1554 0.2461 − 4.70 < 0.001
 Study area Lærdal − 0.9831 0.1690 − 5.82 < 0.001
 Altitude − 0.0011 0.0003 − 3.37 0.001
 Year 2018 0.9297 0.1785 5.21 < 0.001
 Season summer 0.0412 0.2257 0.18 0.855
 Season autumn 0.9133 0.2114 4.32 < 0.001
  1. Values in italics indicated significance for respective parameters
  2. Baseline for study area is Lifjell 2017, spring season and male voles