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Table 1 Pooled prevalence of coccidia in pigs in China

From: Prevalence of coccidia in domestic pigs in China between 1980 and 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables Number of studies Number of pigs tested Number of pigs positive for coccidia Percentage pigs positive for coccidia (95% CI) Heterogeneity Univariate meta-regression Joint analysisa
χ2 P value I2 (%) P value Coefficient (95% CI) Adjusted R2b
Regionc 0.047 0.426 (0.005–0.847) 29.02%
 North China 1 230 91 39.6% (33.7–46.4) 0.00  
 Northwest China 4 1776 394 39.6% (16.7–93.6) 556.35 < 0.01 99.5%  
 Northeast China 3 1657 657 33.7% (23.3–48.7) 178.30 < 0.01 96.1%  
 East China 14 11132 1876 17.6% (10.7–28.9) 5747.85 0.00 99.7%  
 Central China 13 11583 2889 25.0% (18.2–34.2) 1360.95 < 0.01 99.1%  
 South China 13 12716 2548 16.1% (12.3–21.0) 791.56 < 0.01 97.9%  
 Southwest China 11 7892 2014 26.4% (16.4–42.4) 2155.79 0.00 99.5%  
Detection methods 0.014 1.205 (0.240–2.170) 32.3%
 Centrifugal flotation method 4 1701 613 40.7% (19.8–83.6) 479.61 < 0.01 99.4%    
 Direct smear 3 3198 174 6.7% (3.0–14.9) 48.28 < 0.01 95.9%    
 Flotation method (NaCl) 23 18197 4290 26.8% (18.8–38.1) 8450.65 0.00 99.7%    
 Flotation method (NaCl, Suc) 8 9540 2375 24.0% (16.5–34.9) 831.00 0.00 99.2%    
 Flotation method (Suc) 3 3439 805 11.3% (4.3–29.7) 48.47 < 0.01 95.9%    
 Other methods 8 6905 809 12.3% (7.6–19.1) 340.04 < 0.01 97.9%    
Sampling years 0.002 − 0.538 (− 0.876 to − 0.200) 57.81%
 2000 or earlier 14 3756 1540 32.6% (25.8–41.1) 1479.09 < 0.01 98.6%  
 2001–2011 16 18208 4021 20.3% (16.1–25.6) 1078.59 < 0.01 98.6%  
 2012 or later 9 12381 2061 14.3% (8.2–24.8) 1639.23 0 99.5%    
Pig agesd 0.025 − 0.400 (− 0.750 to − 0.049) 43.93%
 Suckling piglets 30 13552 2764 19.9% (17.0–23.4) 1189.50 < 0.01 95.9%  
 Weaning pigs 20 6224 806 11.6% (8.2–16.4) 621.77 < 0.01 96.8%  
 Growing pigs 13 6611 884 12.0% (8.7–16.6) 558.78 < 0.01 96.4%  
 Finishing pigs 16 3371 1143 26.2% (20.1–34.1) 601.53 < 0.01 97.3%  
Gender 0.533 0.178 (− 0.382 to 0.739) 7.44%
 Boars 13 1565 386 19.4% (13.5–27.9) 188.80 < 0.01 93.6%  
 Sows 19 4449 1075 21.1% (14.8–30.3) 1409.60 < 0.01 98.7%  
Feeding model 0.016 0.529 (0.100–0.958) 40.2%
 Extensive 14 7014 1788 29.5% (18.4–47.1) 3766.53 0.00 99.7%  
 Intensive 36 35564 7224 17.3% (14.4–20.9) 3235.66 0.00 98.9%  
Seasone 0.018 0.610 (0.103–1.116) 47.11%
 Spring and summer 11 4431 1383 32.0% (24.0–42.7) 716.32 < 0.01 97.9%    
 Autumn and winter 5 2554 522 16.0% (9.6–26.5) 579.36 < 0.01 97.6%    
Quality level 0.000 0.741 (0.352 –1.131) 28.84%
 Low 5 4163 1468 32.9% (26.1–41.6) 108.57 < 0.01 96.3%  
 Middle 25 18109 4998 29.1% (22.1–38.3) 8028.51 < 0.01 99.7%  
 High 20 24654 4003 14.1% (10.4–19.0) 2255.46 < 0.01 99.2%  
Total 50 46926 10469 21.9% (17.5–27.4) 17697.68 0.000 99.7%    
  1. CI Confidence interval
  2. aJoint analysis: results of each subgroup joint test with provinces
  3. bAdjusted R2: proportion of between-study variance explained
  4. cNorthern China: Hebei; Northwestern China: Shaanxi. Northeastern China: Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning. Eastern China: Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Zhejiang. Central China: Henan, Hubei. Southern China: Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan. Southwestern China: Chongqing, Sichuan, Yunnan
  5. dSuckling piglets (age: days 0–30); weaning pigs (days 28–63); growing pigs (days 63–168); finishing pigs (older than 168 days)
  6. eSpring and summer: March through August. Autumn and winter: September through February.