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Table 3 Pooled prevalence of Cystoisospora suis in pigs in China

From: Prevalence of coccidia in domestic pigs in China between 1980 and 2019: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Variables Number of studies Number of pigs tested Number of pgs positive for C. suis Percentage pigs positive for C. suis (95% CI) Heterogeneity Univariate meta-regression Joint analysis
χ2 P value I2 (%) P value Coefficient (95% CI) Adjusted R2
Regiona 0.013 − 1.542 (− 2.757 to − 0.327) 56.16%
 North China 1 230 91 39.6% (33.7–46.4) 0.00  
 Northwest China 3 1636 69 4.7% (3.3–6.7) 3.21 < 0.01 37.7%  
 East China 6 3953 362 10.2% (5.6–18.6) 136.20 0.00 96.3%  
 Central China 5 6741 527 7.3% (5.2–10.4) 62.66 < 0.01 93.6%  
 South China 4 2510 358 8.3% (2.9–23.9) 80.55 < 0.01 96.3%  
 Southwest China 6 4621 344 10.3% (5.7–18.6) 150.67 0.00 96.7%  
Detection methods 0.026 0.631 (0.076–1.187) 22.22%
 Centrifugal flotation method 4 1701 110 9.4% (3.8–23.3) 69.28   95.7%    
 Flotation method (NaCl) 11 8020 651 7.1% (4.6–11.1) 259.96 0.00 96.2%    
 Flotation method (NaCl, Suc) 7 6665 860 13.9% (8.8–22.2) 324.16   98.1%    
 Flotation method (Suc) 1 50 28 56% (43.8–71.6) 0.00    
 Others 2 2673 278 11.2% (8.3–15.0) 5.25 0.00 81.0%    
Sampling years 0.003 0.842 (0.291–1.394) 54.24%
 2000 or earlier 8 2179 117 5.5% (3.7–8.3) 29.70 < 0.01 76.4%  
 2001 to 2011 10 11303 1107 12.1% (8.1–18.0) 441.98 < 0.01 98.0%  
 2012 or later 5 5363 659 14.4% (8.6–24.3) 204.10 0 98.0%    
Pig ages 0.001 − 0.975 (− 1.418 to − 0.532) 51.36%
 Suckling piglets 14 7072 1006 14.9% (10.9–20.4) 586.99 < 0.01 96.6%    
 Weaning pigs 9 3286 202 5.5% (3.5–8.7) 73.97 < 0.01 89.2%    
 Growing pigs 6 2441 133 5.8% (3.7–9.0) 33.34 < 0.01 82.0%    
 Finishing pigs 2 528 32 6.3% (4.1–9.6) 2.72 < 0.01 26.4%    
 Feeding model 0.081 0.722 (0.021–1.533) 34.43%
 Extensive 4 3202 223 5.1% (3.0–8.5) 15.35 < 0.01 80.5%  
 Intensive 14 10991 1145 10.0% (6.9–14.6) 562.01 < 0.01 97.7%  
Total 26 20470 1834 9.1% (6.9–11.9) 885.02 0.000 97.2%    
  1. aNorthern China: Hebei; Northwestern China: Shaanxi. Northeastern China: Heilongjiang, Jilin, Liaoning. Eastern China: Anhui, Fujian, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Shandong, Shanghai, Zhejiang. Central China: Henan, Hubei. Southern China: Guangdong, Guangxi, Hainan, Hubei, Hunan. Southwestern China: Chongqing, Sichuan, Yunnan