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Table 6 Logistic regression table showing habitat characteristics that influence the presence of Anopheles larvae

From: Larval habitat diversity and Anopheles mosquito species distribution in different ecological zones in Ghana

Characteristic Category Anopheles present Anopheles absent Adjusted OR (CI) p value
Habitat type Concrete well 9/38 (23.68) 29/38 (76.32) 1  
Dug-out well 22/42 (52.38) 20/42 (47.62) 2.59 (0.87, 7.54) 0.107
Natural pond 6/46 (13.04) 40/46 (86.96) 0.27 (0.01, 9.27) 0.468
Man-made pond 31/104 (29.81) 73/104 (70.19) 0.83 (0.30, 2.28) 0.714
Drainage ditch 5/23 (21.74) 18/23 (78.26) 2.26 (0.23, 21.98) 0.483
Puddle 6/24 (25.00) 18/24 (75.00) 0.51 (0.02, 17.20) 0.710
Tyre track 2/30 (6.67) 28/30 (93.33) 6.43 (0.24, 173.44) 0.268
Footprint 3/5 (60.00) 2/5 (40.00) 24 (1.57, 386.77) 0.023
Hoofprint 2/11 (18.18) 9/11 (81.82) 2.26 (0.14, 35.30) 0.562
Swamp 16/44 (36.36) 28/44 (63.64) 1.33 (0.04, 43.59) 0.870
Furrow 5/16 (31.25) 11/16 (68.75) 8.17 (0.64, 104.94) 0.107
Nature of habitat Natural 33/116 (28.45) 83/116 (71.55) 1  
Man-made 80/267 (29.96) 187/267 (70.04) 0.15 (0.01, 2.74) 0.203
Habitat size categorical  < 10 m 95/295 (32.20) 200/295 (67.80) 1  
10–100 m 18/62 (29.03) 44/62 (70.97) 1.73 (0.74, 4.01) 0.203
 > 100 m 0 26/26 (100) 1  
Vegetation cover categorical None 21/92 (22.83) 71/92 (77.17) 1  
 < 24% 38/98 (38.78) 60/98 (61.22) 2.24 (1.02, 4.93) 0.045
25–49% 14/44 (31.82) 30/44 (68.18) 2.62 (0.50, 13.74) 0.253
50–74% 16/47 (34.04) 31/47 (65.96) 3.06 (0.20, 46.04) 0.419
75–100% 74/95 (77.89) 21/95 (22.11) 2.61 (0.07, 101.11) 0.607
Land-use type Farmland 72/225 (32.00) 153/225 (68.00) 1  
Pasture 23/62 (37.10) 39/62 (62.90) 0.82 (0.29, 2.33) 0.716
River/stream 0/7 7/7 (100) 1  
Swamp 0/5 5/5 (100) 1  
Road 3/50 (6.00) 47/50 (94.00) 0.10 (0.01, 0.95) 0.045
Compound/home 10/18 (55.56) 8/18 (44.44) 3.06 (1.00, 9.36) 0.050
Forest 5/16 (31.25) 11/16 (68.75) 1.05 (0.24, 4.55) 0.943
Season Dry 41/140 (29.29) 99/140 (70.71)   
Rainy 72/243 (29.63) 171/243 (70.37) 1.55 (0.83, 2.92) 0.171
Presence of culicines Absent 59/279 (21.15) 220/279 (78.85) 1  
Present 54/168 (32.14) 114/168 (67.86) 3.61 (2.00, 6.53) 0.0001