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Table 3 Onchocercid nematodes, their hosts and location, vectors and the main supergroup of Wolbachia detected

From: Wolbachia: endosymbiont of onchocercid nematodes and their vectors

Onchocercids Host Location Vector Wolbachia supergroup References
Onchocercinae [102]
 Acanthocheilonema dracunculoides Canids Coelomic cavity and subcutaneous tissue Hippobosca
Heterodoxus
NA [102]
 Acanthocheilonema reconditum Canids Subcutaneous tissue Ctenocephalides
Pulex
Heterodoxus
Absent [102]
 Acanthocheilonema viteae Rodents Subcutaneous tissue Ornithodoros Absent [102]
 Acanthocheilonema odendhali Northern fur seal Absent [13]
 Brugia malayi Humans Lymphatic system, lymph nodes, testes Mansonia
Anopheles
Aedes
D [102]
 Brugia pahangi Dogs, felids Lymphatic system, lymph nodes, testes Anopheles
Aedes
D [102]
 Brugia timori Humans Lymphatic system, lymph nodes, testes Anopheles
Aedes
D [102]
 Cercopithifilaria grassii Dogs Subcutaneous tissue Rhipicephalus spp. NA [102]
 Cercopithifilaria japonica Ursidae (Black bear) Oesophageal and tracheal connective tissue F [12]
 Cercopithifilaria crassa Sika deer Dermis Ixodid ticks Absent [12]
 Cercopithifilaria longa Sika deer Subcutaneous connective tissues between muscles and skin of limbs and trunk Ixodid ticks Absent [12]
 Cercopithifilaria minuta Japanese serow Skin Ixodid ticks Absent [12]
 Cercopithifilaria multicauda Japanese serow Skin Ixodid ticks Absent [12]
 Cercopithifilaria roussilhoni Brush–tailed porcupine Skin Ixodid ticks Absent [12]
 Cercopithifilaria shohoi Japanese serow Skin Ixodid ticks Absent [12]
 Cercopithifilaria tumidicervicata Japanese serow Skin Ixodid ticks Absent [12]
 Litomosa westi Rodents Abdominal and pleural cavities Ornithonyssus spp. D [49]
 Litomosoides sigmodontis Rodents Coelomic cavity Ornithonyssus D [102]
 Litomosoides taylori Water nectomys Abdominal cavity Suspected to be mites or bat flies D [12]
 Litomosoides braziliensis Bats Abdominal cavity Suspected to be mites or bat flies D [13, 49, 207]
 Litomosoides solarii Bats Abdominal cavity Suspected to be mites or bat flies D [13, 207]
 Litomosoides hamletti Bats Abdominal cavity Suspected to be mites or bat flies D [49, 207]
 Litomosoides galizai Murids Coelomic cavity Bdellonyssus bacoti D [49]
 Litomosa chiropterorum     Absent [12]
 Litomosa yutajensis     Absent [12]
 Litomosoides chagasfilhoi Mongolian gerbils Abdominal cavity Ornithonyssus bacoti D [208]
 Loxodontofilaria caprini Serows Subcutaneous tissue mainly of limbs Simulium japonicum
T. japonensis (suspected vector)
C [12, 209]
 Montanema martini Typical striped grass mouse Skin Ixodid ticks Absent [12]
 Mansonella ozzardi Humans Coelomic cavity Culicoides
Simulium
F [49, 210]
 Mansonella perstans Humans and monkeys Coelomic cavity Culicoides F [102, 210]
 Mansonella streptocerca Humans and monkeys Intradermal Culicoides grahamii NA [102, 210]
 Mansonella perforata Sika deer Dermis Culicoides spp. F [12, 210]
 M. (T.) atelensis amazonae Primates, Cebidae Subscapular region Culicoides spp. F [12, 210]
 Onchocerca cervicalis Equids Nuchal ligament Culicoides C [102]
 Onchocerca gutturosa/ Onchocerca lienalis Bovids Nuchal ligament, connective tissue, gastro splenic ligament Simulium arakawae Simulium daisense Simulium kyushuense
Culicoides
C [12, 209]
 Onchocerca lupi Canids Unknown C [102]
 Onchocerca ochengi Bovids Intradermal Simulium C [102]
 Onchocerca volvulus Humans Subcutaneous tissue Simulium C [102]
 Onchocerca armillata Bovids
occasionally
camel
Thoracic aorta Midges (Culicoides),
Blackflies (Simulium)
C [12]
 Onchocerca borneensis n. sp. Suids Footpads of the hind limbs   C [12]
 Onchocerca dewittei japonica Suids Nodular fibrous structures in the footpads of fore- and hind limbs Simulium bidentatum C [12, 207, 209]
Onchocerca caprini Bovids Skin Simulium sp. C [12]
 Onchocerca suzukii Bovids Subcutaneous tissue of the body, mainly in the thoracic area and pelvic limbs Simulium japonicum
Prosimulium sp. (Suspected vector)
C [12, 209]
 Onchocerca cervipedis Cervids Subcutaneous tissues of the legs Prosimulium impostor Simulium decorum Simulium venustum C [211]
 Onchocerca boehmi Equids Arteries and veins of the limbs Not known C [212]
 Onchocerca skrjabini Cervids, bovids Subcutaneous tissues of muzzle, hocks and to a lesser extend in brisket and shoulder Simulium arakawae, Simulium bidentatum, Simulium oitanum (Putative vector) C [12, 209]
 Onchocerca eberhardi Cervids Carpal ligament Simulium arakawae, Simulium bidentatum, Simulium oitanum (Putative vector) C [12, 209]
 Onchocerca gibsoni Bovines Subcutaneous and intermuscular nodules Culicoides spp. C [34]
 Onchocerca fasciata Camels Subcutaneous tissue and nuchal ligament Unknown [213]
 Onchocerca jakutensis Red deer, humans Tissues of the outer thigh and the caudal part of the back; eye, neck and face nodules   [214]
 Wuchereria bancrofti Humans Lymphatic system, lymph nodes, testes Culex
Anopheles
Aedes
D [102]
 Dipetalonema gracile Capuchin monkey Abdominal cavity Culicoides spp. J [13, 207, 215, 216]
 Dipetalonema robini New world monkey Peritoneal cavity Culicoides spp. J [13, 207, 216]
 Dipetalonema caudispina New world monkey Peritoneal cavity Culicoides spp. J [13, 207, 216]
 Dipetalonema graciformis New world monkey Peritoneal cavity Culicoides spp. J [216, 217]
 Malayfilaria sofiani Tree shrews Tissues surrounding the lymph nodes of the neck Not known D [207]
 Cruorifilaria tuberocauda Capybara Kidney Not known J [13]
 Yatesia hydrochoerus Capybara Skeletal muscle Amblyomma sp? J [13]
Breinlia (Breinlia) jittapalapongi Tanezumi rat Peritoneal cavity Absent [13]
Dirofìlariinae      
 Dirofilaria immitis Canids, felids Right ventricle pulmonary artery Aedes C [102]
 Dirofilaria repens Canids, felids Subcutaneous tissue Culex
Aedes
C [102]
 Loa loa Humans Subcutaneous tissue Chrysops Absent [102]
 Foleyella candezei Rainbow agama Subcutaneous tissue   Absent [12]
 Pelecitus fulicaeatrae Black-necked grebe Ankle region Lice Absent [13]
Setariinae      
 Setaria equina Horses Coelomic cavity Aedes Absent [102]
 Setaria tundra Roedeer Peritoneal cavity Aedes sp., Anopheles sp. Absent [13]
 Setaria digitata cattle Peritoneal cavity Aedes, Culex, Anopheles, Hyrcanus, Armigeres Absent [12]
Splendidofilariinae      
 Cardiofilaria pavlovskyi Eurasian golden oriole Body and pericardial cavity NA [13]
 Madathamugadia hiepei Turner's thick-toed gecko Phlebotomus sp.? F [13]
 Aproctella sp. 1 Rufous-bellied Thrush
Green-winged saltator
Absent [12]
Icosiellinae      
 Icosiella neglecta Marsh frog, Edible frog Muscle, subcutaneous tissue Absent [13]
Oswaldofilariinae      
 Oswaldofilaria petersi Crocodilurus Mesentery, intestine and thigh muscles Absent [13]
 Piratuba scaffi Lizard jungle runner Skin   Absent [12]
Waltonellinae      
 Ochoterenella phyllomedusa Toads Culicine mosquitoes Absent [13]
 Ochoterenella royi Cane toad Absent [12]
 Ochoterenella sp. 1 Giant leaf frog Absent [12]