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Table 4 Progress in Wolbachia-based vector modifications for control and its possible outcomes

From: Wolbachia: endosymbiont of onchocercid nematodes and their vectors

Vector Pathogens transmitted Stable transfections Strains used Protected against pathogens Effects/favourable outcome of transfected mosquitoes Reversal outcome effects in transfected mosquitoes Reference
Aedes Yellow fever virus
Dengue (D1, D2, D3, D4)
Chikungunya virus
Zika virus (ZIKV)
Rift Valley fever virus
Wuchereria bancrofti,
Brugia malayi
Aedes aegypti
Aedes albopictus
Aedes polynesiensis
wAlbB, wMel, wMelPopCLA Yellow fever virus
Plasmodium gallinaceum
ZIKV and ZIKV/DENV coinfection transmission blockage
Brugia pahangi
wAlB-mosquitoes successfully
established and reduced human
dengue incidence was registred
wMel-mosquitoes successfully
established across 66 km2 and no local
dengue transmission was registered
Enhance DENV D2 in Aedes aegypti
and Plasmodium gallinaceum in Aedes fluviatilis
[144, 147, 218]
Anopheles Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax, Plasmodium malariae, Plasmodium ovale, Plasmodium knowlesi
Wuchereria bancrofti,
Brugia malayi
Anopheles gambiae
Anopheles stephensi
wAlbB Plasmodium falciparum,
modestly suppress
Plasmodium berghei oocyst levels,
Plasmodium yoelii at some temperatures
Modest decrease in oocyst numbers and a strong reduction in salivary gland sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum Enhance Plasmodium yoelii at some temperatures in Anopheles stephensi [147]
Culex West Nile virus
Equine encephalitis virus
Japanese encephalitis virus
Saint Louis encephalitis
Rift Valley fever virus
Wuchereria bancrofti,
Brugia malayi
Culex tarsalis wPip West Nile virus (WNV) Increasing Plasmodium relictum
transmission stages
Enhance WNV infection in Culex tarsalis and Plasmodium relictum in Culex quinquefasciatus [147, 219, 220]