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Table 1 Demographic and risk factors for abdominal cystic echinococcosis in Ñorquinco and Ramos Mexia, Rio Negro, Argentina, 2019

From: Prevalence of human cystic echinococcosis in the towns of Ñorquinco and Ramos Mexia in Rio Negro Province, Argentina, and direct risk factors for infection

Variables POP** US+* (n = 42) US−* (n = 850) PR (95%CI) P-value
N N % N %
Residence
Norquinco 309 13 30.9 296 34.8 1  
Ramos Mexia 583 29 69.1 554 65.2 1.18 (0.62–2.24) 0.608
Total 892 42   850    
Living location
Urban 682 24 57.1 658 77.4 1  
Rural 210 18 42.9 192 22.6 2.43 (1.34–4.40) 0.003
Total 892 42   850    
Age groups (years)
0–19 317 3 7.1 314 37.0 1  
20–39 219 6 14.3 213 25.1 2.89 (0.73–11.46) 0.130
40–59 244 14 33.3 230 27.2 6.0 (1.7–20.8) 0.004
> 60 110 19 45.3 91 10.7 18.2 (5.5–60.5) 0.000
Total 890 42   848    
Sex
Female 514 18 42.9 496 58.4 1  
Male 378 24 57.1 354 41.6 1.81 (0.99.29) 0.051
Total 892 42   850    
Dog ownership in the past 5 years
No 70 2 5.1 68 9.4 1  
Yes 692 37 94.9 655 90.6 1.87 (0.46–7.60) 0.381
Total 762 39   723    
Touch dogs
Never 175 6 15.0 169 20.8 1  
Rarely 146 9 22.5 137 16.7 1.79 (0.65–4.93) 0.255
Frequently 535 25 62.5 510 62.5 1.36 (0.56–3.26) 0.488
Total 856 40   816    
Eat vegetables grown in a kitchen garden
Never 510 23 56.1 487 59.5 1  
Rarely 213 11 26.9 202 24.7 1.14 (0.56–2.30) 0.705
Frequently 136 7 17.0 129 15.8 1.14 (0.50–2.60) 0.754
Total 859 41   818    
Nail biting
No 654 36 85.7 618 75.0 1  
Yes 212 6 14.3 206 25.0 0.51 (0.21–1.20) 0.125
Total 866 42   824    
Smoking
No 691 33 78.6 658 88.4 1  
Yes 95 9 21.4 86 11.6 1.98 (0.97- 4.01) 0.057
Total 786 42   744    
Use toothpicks or chew blade of grass
No 581 26 63.4 555 73.5 1  
Yes 215 15 36.6 200 26.5 1.55 (0.84- 2.88) 0.158
Total 796 41   755    
Hand washing before cooking
Never 795 39 92.9 756 94.5 1  
Every time 47 3 7.1 38 4.7 1.30 (0.41–4.05) 0.650
Type of drinking water
Always public network or bottled 636 22 52.4 614 73.3 1  
Occasionally non-potable 108 8 19.0 100 11.9 2.14 (0.97–4.68) 0.057
Always non-potable 136 12 28.6 124 14.8 2.55 (1.29–5.02) 0.007
Total 880 42   838    
Have relatives with CE in the household
No 559 29 76.3 530 75.8 1  
Yes 179 9 23.7 170 24.2 0.96 (0.46–2.00) 0.933
Total 738 38   700    
Resided in rural areas during the first 5 years of life
No 418 8 20.5 410 58.5 1  
Yes 322 31 79.5 291 41.5 5.03 (2.34–10.79) 0.000
Total 740 39   701    
Years lived in the area of the current address
< 5 years 133 1 2.5 132 17.0 1  
5 to 10 years 139 5 12.5 134 17.0 4.78 (0.56–40.46) 0.151
11 to 20 years 209 3 7.5 206 26.0 1.90 (0.20–18.18) 0.574
> 20 years 346 32 77.5 315 40.0 12.26 (1.69–88.96) 0.013
Total 827 41   787    
  1. PR prevalence rate
  2. *U+: CE cysts on abdominal ultrasound; US−: no CE cysts on abdominal ultrasound; POP: number of people studied