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Table 2 Frequency of symptoms in outbreaks of meat-borne toxoplasmosis in humans in the USA

From: Outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans: five decades of personal experience, perspectives and lessons learned

Location New York City Pennsylvania New York City South Carolina Tennessee Wisconsin Illinois
References [53] [54] [55] [56] [57] [9] [8]
Year of outbreak 1968 1974 1975 1979 2017 2017 2018
No. of patients 5a 4b 5 3 2c 9d 6e
Meat ingested Beef Kibbeh nayeh (Syrian dish) Lamb Venison Venison Venison Venison
Incubation period
(days)
8–13 10–30 8–13 7–10 7 7 4–14
Patients with symptoms (%)
 Symptoms
  Fever 100 100 100 100 100 100 100
  Lymphadenopathy 60.0 75.0 66.6 NR NR 33.3 NR
  Headache 100 NR 66.6 100 NR 100 100
  Chills 40.0 100 NR 100 NR 100 NR
  Sweats NR NR NR 100 NR 100 66.6
  Decreased appetite NR NR NR 100 100 88.8 NR
  Fatigue NR 100 80.0 100 NR 88.8 83.3
  Myalgia 80.0 NR 66.6 NR 100 NR NR
  Anorexia 40.0 NR NR NR NR NR NR
  Sore throat NR NR 20.0 NR NR 77.7 NR
  Arthralgia NR NR 20.0 NR NR 77.7 83.3
  Rash 60.0 NR 20.0 33.3 NR NR NR
  Confusion 40.0 NR NR NR NR 11.1 NR
  Nausea 40.0 NR NR NR NR NR NR
  Eye pain NR NR NR NR NR 11.1 NR
  Blurred vision NR NR NR NR NR 33.3 NR
  Ophthalmic NR NR 20.0 NR NR 16.6 NR
  Abdominal pain 20.0 NR NR NR NR NR NR
  1. NR = Not reported by patient or not recorded
  2. aAte undercooked hamburgers on 5 March 1968. Two patients had abnormal sensation (dysesthesia) in lower extremities; splenomegaly in three
  3. bAte Kibbeh nayeh (a beef dish) at a wedding party in a Syrian restaurant on 23 November 1974
  4. cPatient and his adult grandson ate pan-seared heart of deer; both of them developed identical symptoms 7 days later
  5. dAte undercooked grilled venison kabobs at a deer retreat on 29 September 2017
  6. eCanadian hunters ate venison at a retreat in Illinois, 22 November–4 December 2018