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Table 3 Frequency of symptoms in outbreaks of meat-borne toxoplasmosis in humans in Australia, Brazil, France, and the United Kingdom

From: Outbreaks of clinical toxoplasmosis in humans: five decades of personal experience, perspectives and lessons learned

Location Paraná, Brazil Brisbane, Australia Kyongsangbuk-do, South Korea, Korea Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil São Paulo, Brazil Aveyron, France London, United Kingdom
References [61] [62] [63] [64] [65] [66] [67]
Year of outbreak 1993 1994 1995 2005 2006 2010 NR
No. of patients 17b 12a 5e 10c 6d 5 3
Meat ingested Lamb Kangaroo meat Pork Pork Beef Lamb roast Lamb
Incubation period (days) 6–13 3–25 (average 11) 30 6–23 1–8 30 8
Patients with symptoms (%)
 Fever 94.1 50.0 NR 70.0 100 80 100
 Lymphadenopathy 94.1 66.6 100 80.0 67.0 100 66.6
 Headache 94.1 50.0 NR 75.0 50.0 0 100
 Chills NR 8.3 NR NR NR NR NR
 Sweats NR 33.3 NR 70.0 NR NR NR
 Decreased appetite NR NR NR NR NR 0 NR
 Fatigue NR 16.6 NR NR NR 80.0 NR
 Myalgia 94.1 58.3 NR 80.0 83.0 80.0 100
 Anorexia NR NR NR NR NR 0 NR
 Sore throat NR 25.0 NR NR NR NR NR
 Arthralgia 94.1 NR NR NR 67.0 NR NR
 Rash 11.8 8.3 NR NR 17.0 NR NR
 Confusion NR NR NR NR NR 0 NR
 Nausea NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
 Eye pain NR NR NR NR NR 0 NR
 Blurred vision NR NR NR NR NR 0 NR
 Ophthalmic 5.8 8.3 NR 10.0 NR 0 NR
 Abdominal pain NR NR NR NR NR NR NR
  1. NR = Not reported by patients or not recorded
  2. 0 = no symptoms
  3. aSixty persons attended a Christmas party. A variety of foods were served, but kangaroo meat was suspect because it was served rare. One woman with acute toxoplasmosis had a congenitally infected baby. Two patients had altered liver functions and atypical lymphocytosis
  4. bSymptoms lasted 1–10 days. Ten (62.5%) of 16 patients had fever higher than 39.5ºC from 6–9 days. One patient developed chorioretinitis 20 days after onset of symptoms. Other findings were hepatomegaly in 35.3% and splenomegaly in 23.5%
  5. cPossible ingestion of processed pork loin during a party. One patient had ocular lesions and vision loss 3 months after the first symptoms
  6. dAt a party, ingestion of raw ground beef was associated with T. gondii infection; six of 10 people who ingested beef became infected, while four who did not ingest were not infected. Hepatomegaly was diagnosed in 33.0%. A mother (30 weeks of pregnancy) delivered a dead fetus despite treatment with spiramycin, sulfadiazine, and pyrimethamine
  7. eOn 1 January 1995, five of eleven 20-year-old Korean soldiers feasted on raw liver and meat of a pig reared in a military compound. All suddenly developed lymphadenopathy within 1 week beginning 31 January. The diagnosis was confirmed by serological testing by multiple antibody test. The six persons without symptoms were seronegative