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Table 7 Phenotypic diversity of Ae. albopictus from south-western Europe and Brazil. (a) Landmark-based (LB) and outline based (OB) Mahalanobis distances (LB/OB) obtained with discriminant analysis between wing shapes of female (left) and male (right); (b) comparative morphometric data (extreme values, mean, standard deviation and standard error) of wing centroid size and wing perimeter

From: Aedes albopictus diversity and relationships in south-western Europe and Brazil by rDNA/mtDNA and phenotypic analyses: ITS-2, a useful marker for spread studies

(a)
  Continental Spain Insular Spain France Brazil
Males
 Continental Spain 0.00    
 Insular Spain 4.38a/9.34 0.00   
 France 6.51/15.07 5.90/16.12 0.00  
 Brazil 4.03a/12.27 4.61a/8.94 6.63/21.12 0.00
Females
 Continental Spain 0.00    
 Insular Spain 4.99/9.80 0.00   
 France 4.00/8.30 4.04/6.90 0.00  
 Brazil 4.41/6.70 5.95/9.57 5.38/9.87 0.00
(b)
Population Sex N Centroid size
Mean ± S.D. (Min–Max) (mm)
Centroid size
S.E
Wing perimeter
Mean ± S.D. (Min–Max) (mm)
Wing perimeter
S.E
Continental
Spain
Female 15 3.09 ± 0.13 (2.87–3.30) 0.03 6.09 ± 0.28 (5.56–6.55) 0.07
Male 22 2.42 ± 0.09 (2.25–2.59) 0.02 4.78 ± 0.19 (4.38–5.17) 0.04
Insular Spain Female 9 3.00 ± 0.17 (2.72–3.15) 0.06 5.89 ± 0.36 (5.24–6.23) 0.12
Male 12 2.38 ± 0.16 (2.20–2.59) 0.05 4.71 ± 0.33 (4.33–5.19) 0.10
France Female 9 3.14 ± 0.32 (2.77–3.56) 0.11 6.16 ± 0.58 (5.50–6.89) 0.19
Male 2 2.48 ± 0.01 (2.47–2.48) 0.01 4.85 ± 0.06 (4.81–4.89) 0.04
Brazil Female 11 3.11 ± 0.10 (3.01–3.29) 0.03 6.18 ± 0.19 (5.89–6.56) 0.06
Male 23 2.49 ± 0.08 (2.26–2.65) 0.02 4.96 ± 0.14 (4.53–5.26) 0.03
  1. aStatistically significant pairwise Mahalanobis distances; N, sample size; S.D., standard deviation; Min, minimum; Max, maximum; mm, millimeter; S.E., standard error