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Table 1 Stadium and year distribution of Borrelia-infected ticks removed from humans between 2016 and 2019

From: Long-term study of Borrelia and Babesia prevalence and co-infection in Ixodes ricinus and Dermacentor recticulatus ticks removed from humans in Poland, 2016–2019

Stadium of Borrelia-infected ticks No. of tested ticks (n) No of positive ticksa P value
2016 2017 2018 2019 Total
Borrelia-positive Ixodes ricinus ticksb
 Larvae 54 2 (28.6; 6.5–64.8) 0 (0.0) 2 (8.7; 1.9–25.1) 1 (7.7; 0.8–30.7) 5 (9.3; 3.6–19.1) = 0.231
 Nymphs 1298 22 (27.5; 18.6–38.0) 38 (29.2; 21.9–37.4) 129 (24.5; 21.0–28.3) 132 (23.6; 20.2–27.2) 321 (24.7; 22.5–27.2)  = 0.550
 Adults 538 14 (35.9; 22.3–51.5) 28 (32.6; 23.4–42.9) 63 (29.7; 23.9–36.1) 48 (23.8; 18.3–30.0) 153 (28.4; 24.7–32.3)  = 0.247
 Total 1890 38 (30.2; 22.7–38.6) 66 (29.1; 23.5–35.2) 194 (25.5; 22.5–28.6) 181 (23.4; 20.5–26.4) 479 (25.3; 23.4–27.3)  = 0.051*
Borrelia-positive Dermacentor reticulatus ticksc
 Adults 63 1 (20; 2.3–62.9) 1 (25; 2.8–71.6) 2 (7.7; 1.6–22.5) 4 (14.3; 5.0–30.5) 8 (12.7; 6.1–22.2)  = 0.740
  1. *Hierarchic logline analysis: year of study ×  Borrelia prevalence in Ixodes ricinus ticks: χ23 = 7.6; P = 0.051
  2. aValues for positive ticks are given as the percentage with the 95% confidence interval (CI) in parentheses
  3. bHierarchic logline analysis included: year of study ×  I. ricinus tick stages (larvae, nymphs, adults) ×  Borrelia prevalence: χ26 = 5.4; P = 0.500
  4. cHierarchic logline analysis included: year of study ×  D. reticulatus tick stages (females, males) ×  Borrelia prevalence: χ23 = 2.2; P = 0.542