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Table 2 Summary of the examined parameters for the five studied ungulate species and tick stage

From: Wild ungulate species differ in their contribution to the transmission of Ixodes ricinus-borne pathogens

Parameters Feeding larvae   Feeding nymphs   Feeding females   Non–feeding males  
Infestation prevalence (95% CI)a      
 Fallow deer 0.18 (0.11–0.26) a 0.97 (0.91–0.99) a 0.95 (0.81–0.99) a 0.60 (0.40–0.77) a
 Moose 0.00b a,b 0.39 (0.13–0.73) b,c 0.98 (0.81–1.00) a 1.00b b
 Red deer 0.04 (0.00–0.10) b 0.66 (0.40–0.85) b 0.97 (0.88–0.99) a 0.98 (0.90–0.99) c
 Roe deer 0.10 (0.00–0.21) a,b 0.94 (0.81–0.99) a 0.96 (0.78–0.99) a 0.84 (0.59–0.95) a,c
 Wild boar 0.00b b 0.17 (0.07–0.36) c 0.03 (0.01–0.17) b 0.04 (0.01–0.16) d
Infestation intensity (95% CI)a         
 Fallow deer 2.47 (1.79–3.84) a 8.89 (5.80–13.62) a 3.88 (2.50–6.03) a   
 Moose 0.00  d   1.43 (0.50–4.10) a   
 Red deer 2.50 (2.00–3.00) a 2.07 (0.54–7.89) a 5.49 (3.44–8.76) a   
 Roe deer 2.33 (1.00–3.33) a 3.96 (1.63–9.63) a 3.93 (2.30–6.71) a   
 Wild boar 0.00  d  d    
Tick burden (95% CI)         
 Fallow deer 0.44 (0.17–1.07) a 8.62 (4.91–14.33) a 3.67 (1.83–6.37) a   
 Moose 0.00 b    1.40 (0.32–4.77) a   
 Red deer 0.10 (0.00–0.30) b 1.37 (0.17–8.32) a 5.33 (2.73–9.37) a   
 Roe deer 0.23 (0.00–0.96) a,b 3.72 (1.12–10.83) a 3.77 (1.53–7.25) a   
 Wild boar 0.00 b     
Infection prevalence Anaplasma phagocytophilum (95% CI)a     
 Fallow deer 0.79 (0.62–0.88) a 0.87 (0.77–0.93) a     
 Moose 0.00c a,b e      
 Red deer 1.00c a 0.87 (0.64–0.96) a     
 Roe deer 0.00c b 0.76 (0.54–0.89) a     
 Wild boar  e      
Infection intensity Anaplasma phagocytophilum (95% CI)     
 Fallow deer 0.35 (0.09–0.98) a 7.50 (3.48–13.78) a     
 Moose 0.00 b      
 Red deer 0.10 (0.00–0.36) a,b 1.19 (0.08–8.95) a     
 Roe deer 0.00 b 2.83 (0.50–10.56) a     
 Wild boar 0.00 b      
Infection prevalence Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) (95% CI)a     
 Fallow deer 0.04 (0.00–0.10) a 0.04 (0.02–0.06) a     
 Moose 0.00c a e      
 Red deer 0.20 (0.00–0.40) a 0.04 (0.01–0.12) a     
 Roe deer 0.00c a 0.04 (0.01–0.09) a     
 Wild boar  e      
Infection intensity Borrelia burgdorferi (s.l.) (95% CI)     
 Fallow deer 0.02 (0.00–0.15) a 0.31 (0.09–0.89) a     
 Moose 0.00 a      
 Red deer 0.02 (0.00–0.22) a 0.05 (0.00–1.29) a     
 Roe deer 0.00 a 0.15 (0.01–1.28) a     
 Wild boar 0.00 a      
  1. All values for infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and infection prevalence are predicted values from the models in our study, except for the larvae. 95% confidence intervals (CI) are given in parentheses. The lowercase letters indicate the significant differences among the ungulate species
  2. aThe 95% CI for the infestation prevalence, infestation intensity and infection prevalence are 95% bootstrapped, bias-corrected confidence intervals
  3. bThe CI for infestation prevalence cannot be calculated if none or all of the animals were infested
  4. cThe CI for infection prevalence cannot be calculated if none or all of the ticks were infected
  5. dThe predicted values of the infestation intensity cannot not be obtained due to low number of animals
  6. eThe predicted values of the infection prevalence cannot be obtained due to low number of tested ticks